This first in-depth and comprehensive reference on the most pertinent polar contaminant classes and their behavior in the whole water cycle includes, among others, industrial chemicals, consumer products, polar herbicides and pharmaceuticals. All chapters are uniformly structured, covering properties, pollution sources, occurrence in wastewater, surface water, and groundwater as well as water treatment aspects, while ecotoxicological and assessment aspects are also covered. Among the authors are leading experts in their relevant fields, many of whom provide here groundbreaking research results. The result is an up-to-date information source for researchers and professionals working in water quality monitoring, water supply, or wastewater treatment, as well as environmental and water chemists, geochemists, ecologists, chemists and engineers.
Prof. M. Jekel is full professor for: Water Quality Control, Technical University of Berlin, Germany and also President of German Water Chemical Society; Chairman of DVGW-Technical Committee on Water Treatment; Chairman of IWA-Specialist Group on Particle Separation; Chairman of research network "Water in Urban Areas" of the Technical University Berlin; Editor-in-chief of "Vom Wasser - Das Journal". Dr. Thorsten Reemtsma is Senior Researcher at the Department of Water Quality Control and Lecturer for Environmental Chemistry at the Technical University of Berlin.
Preface. 1 Analytical Methods for Polar Pollutants (Thorsten Reemtsma and Jose Benito Quintana). 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 The Analytical Process. 1.3 Sample Pretreatment and Analyte Extraction. 1.4 Gas Chromatographic Methods. 1.5 Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. 1.6 Conclusions. References. 2 Residues of Pharmaceuticals from Human Use (Thomas Heberer and Thomas Ternes). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Routes into the Environment. 2.3 Wastewater. 2.4 Surface Water. 2.5 Groundwater and Underground Passage. 2.6 Drinking Water Treatment. References. 3 Antibiotics for Human Use (Radka Alexy and Klaus Kummerer). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Use of Antibiotics. 3.3 Emissions into the Environment. 3.4 Occurrence and Fate of Antibiotics. 3.5 Elimination and Degradation in the Aquatic Environment. 3.6 Effects on Aquatic Organisms. 3.7 Conclusion. Acknowledgments. References. 4 Iodinated X-ray Contrast Media (Anke Putschew and Martin Jekel). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Source. 4.3 Wastewater Treatment. 4.4 Receiving Water. 4.5 Groundwater/Exposed Groundwater. 4.6 Treatment. 4.7 Summary. References. 5 Veterinary Pharmaceuticals (Gerd Hamscher). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Substance Classes. 5.3 Pathways to the Environment. 5.4 Occurrence in Wastewater Treatment Plants. 5.5 Surface Waters. 5.6 Groundwater. 5.7 Water Treatment. 5.8 Summary. Acknowledgments. References. 6 Polar Herbicides and Metabolites (Rita Fobbe, Birgit Kuhlmann, Jurgen Nolte, Gudrun Preus, Christian Skark, and Ninette Zullei-Seibert). 6.1 General. 6.2 Entry into the Environment. 6.3 Polar Herbicides in Wastewater. 6.4 Polar Herbicides in Surface Water. 6.5 Polar Herbicides in Groundwater. 6.6 Water Treatment. 6.7 Summary. References. 7 Aminopolycarboxylate Complexing Agents (Carsten K. Schmidt and Heinz-Jurgen Brauch). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Applications and Consumption. 7.3 Occurrence and Fate in Wastewaters. 7.4 Occurrence and Fate in Surface Waters. 7.5 Occurrence and Fate in Groundwater. 7.6 Behavior during Drinking Water Processing. 7.7 Conclusions. References. 8 Amines (Hilmar Bornick and Torsten C. Schmidt). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Production. 8.3 Emission. 8.4 Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment. 8.5 Surface Water. 8.6 Groundwater. 8.7 Drinking Water and Drinking Water Treatment. 8.8 Conclusions. References. 9 Surfactant Metabolites (Thomas P. Knepper and Peter Eichhorn). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Aerobic Biodegradation of Surfactants. 9.3 Surfactants and Metabolites in Wastewater Treatment Plants. 9.4 Surfactants and Metabolites in Surface Waters. 9.5 Surfactants and Metabolites in Subsoil/Underground Passage. 9.6 Surfactants and Metabolites in Drinking Waters. 9.7 Risk Assessment. 9.8 Conclusions. References. 10 Trihalomethanes (THMs), Haloacetic Acids (HAAs), and Emerging Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water (Christian Zwiener). 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Regulations. 10.3 Reactants Leading to DBP Formation. 10.4 Occurrence of DBPs. 10.5 Measures to Control DBPs. 10.6 Conclusions. Acknowledgments. References. 11 Toxicology and Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (Daniel R. Dietrich, Bettina C. Hitzfeld, and Evelyn O'Brien). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 A Comparison of International Risk Assessment Procedures. 11.3 The Toxicological Data Set for Environmental Risk Assessment. 11.4 Conclusions. References. 12 Assessment and Management of Chemicals - How Should Persistent Polar Pollutants be Regulated? (Klaus Gunter Steinhauser and Steffi Richter). 12.1 Chemicals Assessment and Management Today. 12.2 Future Chemicals Management in Europa with REACH. 12.3 Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Persistent Polar Pollutants (PPPs) - A Comparison. Acknowledgments. References. Subject Index.