This volume is the 38th in this classical series. In every volume the content is divided in the different classes of organic reaction mechanisms: Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones and their Derivatives; Reactions of Carboxylic, Phosphoric, and Sulfonic Acids and their Derivatives; Oxidation and Reduction; Carbenes and Nitrenes; Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution; Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution; Carbocations; Nucleophilic Aliphatic Substitution; Carbanions and Electrophilic Aliphatic Substitution; Elimination Reactions; Radical Reactions; Addition Reactions: Polar Addition; Addition Reactions: Cycloadditions; and, Molecular Rearrangements. An experienced team of authors is compiling these reviews every year, so that the reader can rely on a continuing quality of selection and presentation. As a new service to the reader all reaction mechanisms leading to stereospecific products are highlighted. This reflects the needs of the organic synthetic community with leads to chiral reactions. Detailed author and subject indexes help the reader to find the information they are looking for.