Taking students beyond classical mathematical logic, Philosophical Logic is a wide-ranging introduction to more advanced topics in the study of philosophical logic. Starting by contrasting familiar classical logic with constructivist or intuitionist logic, the book goes on to offer concise but easy-to-read introductions to such subjects as quantificational and syllogistic logic, modal logic and set theory. Chapters include: * Sentential Logic * Quantificational Logic * Sentential Modal Logic * Quantification and Modality * Set Theory * Incompleteness * An Introduction to Term Logic * Modal Term Logic In addition, the book includes a list of symbols and a glossary of terms for ease of reference and exercises throughout help students master the topics covered in the book. Philosophical Logic is an essential, student-friendly guide for anyone studying these difficult topics as part of their Logic course.
George Englebretsen is Professor Emeritus at Bishop's University, Canada. He is the author of a large number of works dealing with topics in the philosophy of logic and language, metaphysics and the history of logic. Charles Sayward is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA. He is a much-published author of works in the philosophy of logic and the philosophy of mathematics, most recently Dialogues Concerning Natural Numbers.
1. Introduction / Sentences / Truth and Falsity / Defense and Refutation / Inference, Form and Implication / Formally Valid Inference / Conjunctions / Inference with Conjunctions / Negation / Inference with Negation / Truth-Functionality and Negation / Grouping / 2. Sentential Logic / Simple Sentences / Sentences / Derivations: A First Look / A Note on Sets / Lines / Derivations Again / Theorems / Truth Sets / Soundness / Completeness / Extensions of SL / Conditionalization / Model Sets / Syntax and Semantics / 3. Quantificational Logic / Singular Terms / Predicates / Some Symbolic Conventions / Some / The Language QL / Derivations / Truth Sets / All / Further Extensions of QL / Model Sets / Identity / Model Sets for QL / 4. Sentential Modal Logic / Non-Truth-Functional Sentential Operators / Sentential Modal Operators / Derivations / S5, S4, T, and B / Possible Worlds / At a World and In a World / Model Sets and Model Systems / Deontic Logic and Model Sets / 5. Quantification and Modality / Some Derivations / Model Sets and Systems / An Alternative / 6. Set Theory / The Axiom of Extensionality / Axioms of Separation / Pairing Axiom and Rule U / The Restriction on the A2 Axiom / The Null Set / An Interpretation / More Axioms / General Intersection Operation / Order and Relations / Functions / Sizes of Sets / The Power Set Axiom / A Basic Theorem / 7. Incompleteness / The Language of Arithmetic / Three Key Concepts / Three Key Theorems / The Core Argument / Concluding Observations / 8. An Introduction to Term Logic / Syllogistic / The Limits of Syllogistic / Term Functor Logic / Singular Terms and Identity in TFL / Relationals in TFL / The Logic of Sentences in TFL / Rules of Inference for Derivations in TFL / Derivation in TFL / The Bridge to TFL / 9. Modal Term Logic / Modal Operators on Terms / Modal Operators on Sentences / Rules of Derivation for Modal TFL / Modal Inference in TFL / Rules, Axioms and Principles / List of Symbols / Glossary / Index.