Wittgenstein famously remarked in 1923, "Darwin's theory has no more relevance for philosophy than any other hypothesis in natural science." Yet today we are witnessing a major revival of interest in applying evolutionary approaches to philosophical problems. Philosophy after Darwin is an anthology of essential writings covering the most influential ideas about the philosophical implications of Darwinism, from the publication of On the Origin of Species to today's cutting-edge research. Michael Ruse presents writings by leading modern thinkers and researchers--including some writings never before published--together with the most important historical documents on Darwinism and philosophy, starting with Darwin himself. Included here are Herbert Spencer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Thomas Henry Huxley, G. E. Moore, John Dewey, Konrad Lorenz, Stephen Toulmin, Karl Popper, Edward O. Wilson, Hilary Putnam, Philip Kitcher, Elliott Sober, and Peter Singer. Readers will encounter some of the staunchest critics of the evolutionary approach, such as Alvin Plantinga, as well as revealing excerpts from works like Jack London's The Call of the Wild.
Ruse's comprehensive general introduction and insightful section introductions put these writings in context and explain how they relate to such fields as epistemology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and ethics. An invaluable anthology and sourcebook, Philosophy after Darwin traces philosophy's complicated relationship with Darwin's dangerous idea, and shows how this relationship reflects a broad movement toward a secular, more naturalistic understanding of the human experience.
Michael Ruse is the Lucyle T. Werkmeister Professor of Philosophy at Florida State University. His many books include "Darwinism and Its Discontents" and "Darwin and Design".
Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 Part I. Epistemology after Darwin 13 HERBERT SPENCER: The Principles of Psychology 29 FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE: The Gay Science 32 CHAUNCEY WRIGHT: The Evolution of Self- Consciousness 34 CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE: The Fixation of Belief 39 WILLIAM JAMES: Great Men, Great Thoughts, and the Environment 49 JOHN DEWEY: The Influence of Darwinism on Philosophy 55 Part II. Ethics after Darwin 63 CHARLES DARWIN: The Descent of Man 77 HERBERT SPENCER: The Data of Ethics 103 WILLIAM GRAHAM SUMNER: The Challenge of Facts 113 ANDREW CARNEGIE: The Gospel of Wealth 122 KARL PEARSON: Socialism 128 PRINCE PETR KROPOTKIN: Mutual Aid 130 ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE: Human Progress: Past and Future 133 FRIEDRICH VON BERNHARDI: The Right to Make War 134 JACK LONDON: The Call of the Wild 137 G. E. MOORE: Principia Ethica: Naturalistic Ethics 141 THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY: Evolution and Ethics 152 Part III. The Evolution of Ideas 155 KARL POPPER: Darwinism as a Metaphysical Research Programme 167 THOMAS KUHN: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 176 STEPHEN TOULMIN: The Evolutionary Development of Natural Science 177 DANIEL C. DENNETT: Memes and the Exploitation of Imagination 189 BRUCE EDMONDS: Three Challenges for the Survival of Memetics 198 DAVID HULL: Altruism in Science: A Sociobiological Model of Cooperative Behavior among Scientists 202 HILARY PUTNAM: Why Reason Cant Be Naturalized: Evolutionary Epistemology 217 Part IV. The Evolution of Rationality 221 KONRAD LORENZ: Kants Doctrine of the A Priori in the Light of Contemporary Biology 231 MICHAEL RUSE: The View from Somewhere: A Critical Defense of Evolutionary Epistemology 247 STEVEN PINKER: How the Mind Works 275 RONALD DE SOUSA: Evolution, Th inking, and Rationality 289 ALVIN PLANTINGA: The Evolutionary Argument against Naturalism: An Initial Statement of the Argument 301 EVAN FALES: Darwin's Doubt, Calvin's Calvary 309 Part V. Ethics and Progress 323 EDWARD O. WILSON On Human Nature 333 PETER SINGER A Darwinian Left : Politics, Evolution, and Cooperation 343 LARRY ARNHART Darwinian Conservatism 349 MICHAEL RUSE AND EDWARD O. WILSON: Moral Philosophy as Applied Science 365 PHILIP KITCHER: Four Ways of "Biologicizing" Ethics 379 ROBERT J. RICHARDS: A Defense of Evolutionary Ethics 388 Part VI. The Evolution of Altruism 411 MARC HAUSER: The Liver and the Moral Organ 423 ELLIOTT SOBER AND DAVID SLOAN WILSON: Unto Others 433 RICHARD JOYCE: Is Human Morality Innate? 452 ZACH ERNST: Game Theory in Evolutionary Biology 464 PETER SINGER: Ethics and Intuitions 476 MICHAEL RUSE: Evolution and Ethics: The Sociobiological Approach 489 CRAIG A. BOYD: Thomistic Natural Law and the Limits of Evolutionary Psychology 522 R. PAUL THOMPSON: An Evolutionary Account of Evil 533 GREGORY R. PETERSON: Falling Up: Evolution and Original Sin 539 Sources and Credits 549 Further Reading 553 Bibliography 561 Index 569