Philosophy in the Ancient World: An Introduction-an intellectual history of the ancient world from the eighth century B.C.E. to the fifth century C.E., from Homer to Boethius-describes and evaluates ancient thought in its cultural setting, showing how it affected and was affected by that setting. The greatest philosophers (Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Augustine) and cultural figures (Homer, Euripides, Thucydides, Archimedes) and a number of lesser ones (Hesiod, Posidonius, Basil) receive careful description and evaluation. Philosophy in the Ancient World is ideally suited as a supplement for undergraduate courses in Ancient Philosophy and the History of Philosophy in the West.
James A. Arieti is Graves H. Thompson Professor of Classics and chair of the department at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia.
Chapter 1 Illustrations Chapter 2 Preface Chapter 3 Acknowledgements Chapter 4 Time Line of the Ancient Thinkers Chapter 5 Map: Philosophers in the Ancient World Part 6 Chapter 1: A World Ready for Philosophy Chapter 7 I. Why Ancient Philosophy Chapter 8 II. Qualities of the Greek Mind Conducive to Philosophy Chapter 9 III. Before Philosophy: Homer and Hesiod Chapter 10 A. Homer Chapter 11 B. Hesiod Chapter 12 IV. Why Homer and Hesiod Are Not Philosophy Chapter 13 V. Other Conditions Affecting the Birth of Philosophy Chapter 14 A. The Polis Chapter 15 B. Architecture and Art Chapter 16 VI. How and Where Philosophy Began Chapter 17 VII. The Branches of Philosophy Part 20 Chapter 2: Philosophy Begins Chapter 21 I. By What Name Shall We Call the Milesian Thinkers? Chapter 22 II. How Do We Know About the Early Thinkers? Chapter 23 III. The Thinkers from Miletus: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes Chapter 24 A. Thales (624-546) Chapter 25 B. Anaximander (610-546) Chapter 26 C. Anaximenes (585-528) Chapter 26 Discussion Questions Chapter 27 Select Bibliography Chapter 27 IV. General Remarks on the Milesians Part 30 Chapter 3: Philosophy Moves to Italy Chapter 31 I. Italy Chapter 32 Discussion Questions Chapter 32 II. Pythagoras Chapter 33 Select Bibliography Chapter 33 III. Xenophanes Part 36 Chapter 4: The Turn of the Fifth Century: Heraclitus and Parmenides Chapter 37 I. The Turn of the Century Chapter 38 II. Heraclitus Chapter 39 III. Parmenides (fl. 501-490) and His Successors Chapter 40 Discussion Questions Chapter 40 A. Parmenides Chapter 41 B. Zeno and Melissus Chapter 41 Select Bibliography Part 44 Chapter 5: The Persian Wars and their Aftermath: Sophistry and Rhetoric Chapter 45 Discussion Questions Chapter 45 I. The Persian Wars Chapter 46 Select Bibliography Chapter 46 II. Rhetoric and Sophistry Part 49 Chapter 6: Medicine, Tragedy, History Chapter 50 I. Medicine Chapter 51 Discussion Questions Chapter 51 II. Tragedy Chapter 52 III. History Chapter 52 Select Bibliography Part 55 Chapter 7: Empedocles, Anaxagoras, and Democritus Chapter 56 I. Empedocles Chapter 57 II. Anaxagoras Chapter 58 Discussion Questions Chapter 58 III. Democritus Chapter 59 IV. Summing up the Early Philosophers Chapter 59 Select Bibliography Part 62 Chapter 8: The Peloponnesian War: Socrates, Thucydides, Euripides Chapter 63 I. Socrates Chapter 64 II. Thucydides Chapter 64 Discussion Questions Chapter 65 Select Bibliography Chapter 65 III. Euripides Part 68 Chapter 9: Rhetoric and the Philosophers Chapter 69 I. Rhetoric Chapter 70 II. Extemporaneous and Prepared Speeches Chapter 71 III. Isocrates (436-338) Chapter 72 III. Rhetoric and Philosophy Part 75 Chapter 10: Plato Chapter 76 I. Plato (428-348 B.C.E.) Chapter 77 II. Reading Platonic Dialogues Chapter 78 III. A Compendium of Views Associated with Plato Chapter 79 A. Metaphysics Chapter 80 B. Ethics Chapter 81 C. Political Philosophy Chapter 82 D. Eros Chapter 83 E. Teleology Chapter 84 F. Other Views Chapter 85 IV. Plato's Academy Chapter 85 Discussion Questions Chapter 86 V. After Plato Chapter 86 Select Bibliography Part 89 Chapter 11: Aristotle Chapter 91 II. Logic Chapter 92 III. Aristotle's Ten Categories Chapter 93 A. The Ten Types of Predication Chapter 94 B. Matter and Form Chapter 95 C. Actuality and Potentiality Chapter 96 D. Essence Chapter 97 E. Additional Thoughts on Actuality and Potentiality Chapter 98 IV. Aristotle's "Four Causes" Chapter 99 V. Aristotle's Response to Parmenides Chapter 100 VI. The Prime Mover as Aristotle's Deity Chapter 101 VII. Aristotle's Philosophy of Science Chapter 102 A. The Strong Meaning of Knowledge Chapter 103 B. Where Knowledge Comes From Chapter 104 C. Mistakes People Make About Knowledge Chapter 105 D. Unqualified Knowledge Chapter 106 VIII. Aristotle's Ethics Chapter 107 A. Happiness Chapter 108 B. The Doctrine of the Mean and the Virtues Chapter 109 C. Friendship Chapter 110 D. Pleasure Chapter 111 Discussion Questions Chapter 111 IX. Aristotle's Psychology Chapter 112 Select Bibliography Chapter 112 X. Aristotle's Legacy Part 115 Chapter 12: The World of The Third Century Chapter 116 I. Alexander and his Aftermath Chapter 117 II. Intellectual Developments Chapter 118 A. Mathematics and Astronomy Chapter 119 B. Biological Sciences Chapter 120 C. City-planning Chapter 120 Discussion Questions Chapter 121 D. Literary Studies Chapter 121 Select Bibliography Part 124 Chapter 13: Epicureanism Chapter 125 I. Introduction Chapter 126 II. Epicurus's Antecedents Chapter 127 A. Aristippus of Cyrene (435-360) Chapter 128 B. Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360-275) Chapter 129 III. Epicureanism Chapter 130 A. Epicurus Chapter 130 Discussion Questions Chapter 131 B. Epicurus's System Chapter 131 Select Bibliography Chapter 133 I. Introduction Part 134 Chapter 14: Stoicism Chapter 135 I. Introduction Chapter 136 II. Cynics Chapter 137 III. The Early Stoa Chapter 138 A. The Founding of Stoicism: Zeno (336-265) Chapter 139 B. Zeno's Successors Chapter 140 C. The Middle Stoa Chapter 141 IV. Tenets of Stoicism Chapter 142 A. Introduction Chapter 143 B. Logic Chapter 144 C. Stoic Physics and Its Relation to Ethics Chapter 145 D. Ethics Chapter 146 E. Assorted Stoic Views Chapter 147 V. Roman Stoicism Chapter 148 A. Seneca (4 B.C.E.-65 C.E.) Chapter 149 B. Epictetus (55-135) Chapter 150 C. Marcus Aurelius (121-180) Chapter 150 Discussion Questions Chapter 151 VI. Concluding Remarks on Stoicism Chapter 151 Select Bibliography Part 154 Chapter 15: Rome and Cicero Chapter 155 I. Rome Chapter 156 II. Cicero the Man Chapter 157 III. Cicero the Thinker Chapter 157 Discussion Questions Chapter 158 IV. Cicero's Legacy Chapter 158 Select Bibliography Part 159 Chapter 16: Greek Philosophy Finds the Bible and the Bible Finds Greek Philosophy Chapter 162 Discussion Questions Chapter 162 I. The World at the Turn of the Millennium Chapter 163 Select Bibliography Chapter 163 II. Philo of Alexandria Part 166 Chapter 17: The War for the Ancient Soul Chapter 167 I. The War of Politics and Philosophy Chapter 168 II. Cultural Decline and Its Explanations Chapter 169 III. The City on a Hill Chapter 170 IV. Christianity and Philosophy Chapter 171 V. The Christian Dance with Philosophy: Minucius Felix and Basil of Caesarea Chapter 172 A. Minucius Felix (fl. 200-240) Chapter 172 Discussion Questions Chapter 173 B. Basil of Caesarea (330-379) Chapter 173 Select Bibliography Chapter 174 Discussion Questions Chapter 175 Select Bibliography Part 176 Chapter 18: Philosophy at the End of Antiquity Chapter 177 I. Neoplatonism Chapter 178 II. Plotinus (205-270) Chapter 179 III. Christian Philosophy Chapter 180 IV. Augustine (354-430) Chapter 181 A. Augustine's Conversion to Philosophy Chapter 182 B. Augustine's Manichaean Period Chapter 183 C. Augustine's Neoplatonist Period Chapter 184 D. Augustine's Christian Philosophy Chapter 185 E. Conclusions about Augustine Chapter 186 V. Boethius (475-524) Chapter 187 Discussion Questions Chapter 187 VI. Heresy and the End of Ancient Philosophy Chapter 188 Select Bibliography Chapter 188 VII. Concluding Remarks Chapter 189 Discussion Questions Chapter 190 Select Bibliography