Representing a further step towards enabling the convergence of computing and communication, this handbook and reference treats germanium electronics and optics on an equal footing. Renowned experts paint the big picture, combining both introductory material and the latest results. The first part of the book introduces readers to the fundamental properties of germanium, such as band offsets, impurities, defects and surface structures, which determine the performance of germanium-based devices in conjunction with conventional silicon technology. The second part covers methods of preparing and processing germanium structures, including chemical and physical vapor deposition, condensation approaches and chemical etching. The third and largest part gives a broad overview of the applications of integrated germanium technology: waveguides, photodetectors, modulators, ring resonators, transistors and, prominently, light-emitting devices. An invaluable one-stop resource for both researchers and developers.
Kazumi Wada is head of the Microphotonics Laboratory at the University of Tokyo, Japan. His current research involves device technology of photonic materials and structures. He is particularly interested in the microscale integration of planar lightwave circuits with Silicon and in engineering of material-photon interaction for novel device functions. After his PhD in semiconductor physics he worked at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation Laboratory for Large Scale Integration. In 1998 Kazumi Wada joined the Electronic Materials Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, USA, before returning to Tokyo. Lionel C. Kimerling is Director of the Microphotonics and the Materials Processing Center and Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, USA. His research activities address the fundamental science of imperfection in solids and the processing of electronic materials, with an emphasis on both materials science and applications. Lionel C. Kimerling received the prestigious Fellow Award of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society for his outstanding basic and applied research on defects in semiconductors and for his professional and academic leadership in the field of electronic materials.
Preface DEFECTS IN GERMANIUM Introduction Methods for Studying Defects and Impurities Impurities Intrinsic Defects Summary HYDROGEN IN GE Introduction Properties of Hydrogen in Ge Hydrogen Passivation of Shallow Donors and Acceptors in Ge Summary EPITAXY OF Ge LAYERS ON BLANKET AND PATTERNED Si(001) FOR NANOELECTRNICS AND OPTOELECTRONICS General Introduction Epitaxial Growth of GeThick Layers on Si(001) Ge Surface Passivation with Si SEG of Ge in Cavities at the End of OpticalWaveguides Fabrication, Structural, and Electrical Properties of Compressively Strained Ge-on-Insulator Substrates Conclusion and Perspectives HEAVY DOPING IN Si1-xGex EPITAXIAL GROWTH BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Introduction In situ Doping of B, P, and C in Si1-x Gex Epitaxial Growth Atomic-Layer Doping in Si1-xGex Epitaxial Growth Conclusion and Future Trends FEOL INTEGRATION OF SILICON- AND GERMANIUM-BASED PHOTONICS IN BULK-SILICON, HIGH-PERFORMANCE SiGe: C-BiCMOS PROCESSES Introduction Local SOI Technology Passive SiliconWaveguide Technology Modulator Technology Photonics Integration in BiCMOS Flow Germanium Photo Detector - Process Integration Challenges Example Circuit - 10 Gbit s-1 Modulator with Driver Outlook Ge CONDENSATION AND ITS DEVICE APPLICATION Principle of Ge Condensation and Fabrication Process GOI Film Characterization Device Application Summary WAVEGUIDE DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND ACTIVE DEVICE INTEGRATION Introduction Design of Silicon PhotonicWireWaveguiding System Fabrication Propagation Performance ofWaveguides Integration of Si/Silica and Ge Photonic Devices Summary DETECTORS Introduction Historical Background Fiber-Optics Revolution Avalanche Devices Si-Photonics High-Performance Ge Detectors Process Options and Challenges Device Architectures Ge on Si Detectors in Highly Integrated Systems Reliability Conclusions Ge AND GeSi ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATORS Introduction EAE in Ge and GeSi:Theoretical and Experimental Waveguide Coupling Current Progress in Ge and GeSi EAMs Conclusions STRAINED Ge FOR Si-BASED INTEGRATED PHOTONICS Introduction Bandgap and Strain: Theory Bandgap and Strain: Experiment Strain-Engineered Tunability of Lasers Conclusions Ge QUANTUM DOTS-BASED LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES Introduction Formation of Ge Dots on Si Substrates andTheir Luminescent Properties Enhanced Light Emission from Ge QDs Embedded in Optical Cavities Optically Excited Light Emission from Ge QDs Electrically Excited Light Emission from Ge ODs Conclusion Ge-ON-Si LASERS Introduction Modeling and Analyses of Band-Engineered Ge Optical Gain Media Fabrication of Band-Engineered Ge-on-Si Band-Engineered Ge-on-Si Light Emitters Conclusions Index