Fundamental elementary facts and theoretical tools for the interpretation and model development of solid-gas interactions are first presented in this work. Chemical, physical and electrochemical aspects are presented from a phenomenological, thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. The theoretical aspects of electrical properties on the surface of a solid are also covered to provide greater accessibility for those with a physico-chemical background. The second part is devoted to the development of devices for gas detection in a system approach. Methods for experimental investigations concerning solid-gas interactions are first described. Results are then presented in order to support the contribution made by large metallic elements to the electronic processes associated with solid-gas interactions.
Rene Lalauze is a Professor at the Ecole des Mines, St. Etienne, France.
Preface. Chapter 1. Adsorption Phenomena. 1.1. The surface of solids: general points. 1.2. Illustration of adsorption. 1.3. Acting forces between a gas molecule and the surface of a solid. 1.4. Thermodynamic study of physical adsorption.8 1.5. Physical adsorption isotherms. 1.6. Chemical adsorption isotherms. 1.7. Bibliography. Chapter 2. Structure of Solids: Physico-chemical Aspects. 2.1. The concept of phases. 2.2. Solid solutions. 2.3. Point defects in solids. 2.4. Denotation of structural members of a crystal lattice. 2.5. Formation of structural point defects. 2.6. Bibliography. Chapter 3. Gas-Solid Interactions: Electronic Aspects. 3.1. Introduction. 3.2. Electronic properties of gases. 3.3. Electronic properties of solids. 3.4. Electrical conductivity in solids. 3.5. Influence of temperature on the electric behavior of solids. 3.6. Bibliography. Chapter 4. Interfacial Thermodynamic Equilibrium Studies. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Interfacial phenomena. 4.3. Solid-gas equilibriums involving electron transfers or electron holes. 4.4. Solid-gas equilibriums involving mass and charge transfers. 4.5. Homogenous semiconductor interfaces. 4.6. Heterogenous junction of semiconductor metals. 4.7. Bibliography. Chapter 5. Model Development for Interfacial Phenomena. 5.1. General points on process kinetics. 5.2. Electrochemical aspect of kinetic processes. 5.3. Expression of mixed potential. 5.4. Bibliography. Chapter 6. Apparatus for Experimental Studies: Examples of Applications . 6.1. Introduction. 6.2. Calorimetry. 6.3. Thermodesorption. 6.4. Vibrating capacitor methods. 6.5. Electrical interface characterization. 6.6. Bibliography. Chapter 7. Material Elaboration. 7.1. Introduction. 7.2. Tin dioxide. 7.3. Beta-alumina. 7.4. Bibliography. Chapter 8. Influence of the Metallic Components on the Electrical Response of the Sensors. 8.1. Introduction. 8.2. General points. 8.3. Case study: tin dioxide. 8.4. Case study: beta-alumina. 8.5. Conclusion. 8.6. Bibliography. Chapter 9. Development and Use of Different Gas Sensors. 9.1. General points on development and use. 9.2. Examples of gas sensor development. 9.3. Device designed for the laboratory assessment of sensitive elements and/or sensors to gas action. 9.4. Assessment of performance in the laboratory. 9.5. Assessment of the sensor working for an industrial application. 9.6. Amelioration of the selectivity properties. 9.7. Bibliography. Chapter 10. Models and Interpretation of Experimental Results. 10.1. Introduction. 10.2. Nickel oxide. 10.3. Beta-alumina. 10.4. Tin dioxide. 10.5. Bibliography. Index.