Physics for Radiation Protection (3rd Edition)

Physics for Radiation Protection (3rd Edition)

By: James E. Martin (author)Hardback

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Description

A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: * The atom as an energy system * An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics * Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials * Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose * Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding * Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products * Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays * Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums * Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures This complete discussion of the basic concepts allows readers to advance their professional skills.

About Author

JAMES E. MARTIN, PhD, CHP, is Associate Professor (Emeritus) at the University of Michigan where he has done research and teaching on environmental and public health aspects of radiation with an emphasis on radiation physics since 1982. He also served 25 years (1957-81) with the U.S. Public Health Service and Environmental Protection Agency, doing environmental assessments of radioactive materials including protection standards. His doctorate is in Radiological Health. Professor Martin is certified in Health Physics by the American Board of Health Physics and has published over 40 peer-reviewed papers and numerous articles and reports. Advisory Committee memberships include two National Academy of Science committees, the Science Advisory Board of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Contents

Preface XVII 1 Structure of Atoms 1 1.1 Atom Constituents 2 1.2 Structure, Identity, and Stability of Atoms 5 1.3 Chart of the Nuclides 6 1.4 Nuclear Models 8 2 Atoms and Energy 11 2.1 Atom Measures 12 2.2 Energy Concepts for Atoms 14 3 Radioactive Transformation 21 3.1 Processes of Radioactive Transformation 21 3.2 Decay Schemes 54 3.3 Rate of Radioactive Transformation 57 3.4 Radioactivity Calculations 65 3.5 Activity mass Relationships 70 3.6 Radioactive Series Transformation 73 3.7 Radioactive Equilibrium 77 3.8 Total Number of Transformations (Uses of s and kEff) 84 3.9 Discovery of the Neutrino 86 4 Interactions 91 4.1 Production of X-rays 91 4.2 Characteristic X-rays 93 4.3 Nuclear Interactions 98 4.4 Alpha Particle Interactions 104 4.5 Transmutation by Protons and Deuterons 106 4.6 Neutron Interactions 114 4.7 Activation Product Calculations 117 4.8 Medical Isotope Reactions 126 4.9 Transuranium Elements 128 4.10 Photon Interactions 130 4.11 Fission and Fusion Reactions 133 4.12 Summary 138 5 Nuclear Fission and its Products 143 5.1 Fission Energy 145 5.2 Physics of Sustained Nuclear Fission 147 5.3 Neutron Economy and Reactivity 152 5.4 Nuclear Power Reactors 154 5.5 Light Water Reactors (LWRs) 157 5.6 Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) 165 5.7 Breeder Reactors 169 5.8 Gas-cooled Reactors 174 5.9 Reactor Radioactivity 176 5.10 Radioactivity in Reactors 188 5.11 Summary 193 6 Naturally Occurring Radiation and Radioactivity 197 6.1 Discovery and Interpretation 197 6.2 Background Radiation 199 6.3 Cosmic Radiation 200 6.4 Cosmogenic Radionuclides 203 6.5 Naturally Radioacitve Series 207 6.6 Singly Occurring Primordial Radionuclides 214 6.7 Radioactive Ores and Byproducts 216 6.8 Radioactivity Dating 224 6.9 Radon and its Progeny 228 6.10 Summary 240 7 Interactions of Radiation with Matter 245 7.1 Radiation Dose and Units 245 7.2 Radiation Dose Calculations 249 7.3 Interaction Processes 250 7.4 Interactions of Alpha Particles and Heavy Nuclei 252 7.5 Beta Particle Interactions and Dose 257 7.6 Photon Interactions 270 7.7 Photon Attenuation and Absorption 277 7.8 Energy Transfer and Absorption by Photons 288 7.9 Exposure/Dose Calculations 296 7.10 Summary 303 8 Radiation Shielding 307 8.1 Shielding of Alpha-Emitting Sources 307 8.2 Shielding of Beta-Emitting Sources 308 8.3 Shielding of Photon Sources 314 8.4 Gamma Flux for Distributed Sources 338 8.5 Shielding of Protons and Light Ions 357 8.6 Summary 360 9 Internal Radiation Dose 365 9.1 Absorbed Dose in Tissue 365 9.2 Accumulated Dose 366 9.3 Factors In The Internal Dose Equation 370 9.4 Radiation Dose from Radionuclide Intakes 383 9.5 Operational Determinations of Internal Dose 405 9.6 Tritium: a Special Case 408 9.7 Summary 411 10 Environmental Dispersion 415 10.1 Atmospheric Dispersion 417 10.2 Nonuniform turbulence: Fumigation, Building Effects 429 10.3 Puff Releases 438 10.4 Sector-Averaged v/Q Values 439 10.5 Deposition/Depletion: Guassian Plumes 443 10.6 Summary 452 11 Nuclear Criticality 455 11.1 Nuclear Reactors and Criticality 456 11.2 Nuclear Explosions 464 11.3 Criticality Accidents 470 11.4 Radiation Exposures in Criticality Events 475 11.5 Criticality Safety 476 11.6 Fission Product Release in Criticality Events 482 11.7 Summary 485 12 Radiation Detection and Measurement 489 12.1 Gas-Filled Detectors 489 12.2 Crystalline Detectors/Spectrometers 493 12.3 Semiconducting Detectors 494 12.4 Gamma Spectroscopy 495 12.5 Portable Field Instruments 504 12.6 Personnel Dosimeters 509 12.7 Laboratory Instruments 511 13 Statistics in Radiation Physics 523 13.1 Nature of Counting Distributions 523 13.2 Propagation of Error 534 13.3 Comparison of Data Sets 538 13.4 Statistics for the Counting Laboratory 541 13.5 Levels of Detection 551 13.6 Minimum Detectable Concentration or Contamination 558 13.7 Log Normal Data Distributions 562 14 Neutrons 571 14.1 Neutron Sources 571 14.2 Neutron Parameters 573 14.3 Neutron Interactions 575 14.4 Neutron Dosimetry 578 14.5 Neutron Shielding 591 14.6 Neutron Detection 598 14.7 Summary 605 Appendix A 613 Appendix B 615 Appendix C 625 Appendix D 629 Index 657

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527411764
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 670
  • ID: 9783527411764
  • weight: 1514
  • ISBN10: 3527411763
  • edition: 3rd Edition

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  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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