In the 19th century conditions of rural life in the Middle East were revolutionized. But the traditional preoccupation in Muslim societies with urban culture means that the study of rural life has been comparatively neglected. In this book, available in paperback for the first time, Raouf Sa'd Abujaber does much to redress the balance. He describes how cultivators, among them his own ancestors, moved eastwards into tribal lands across the Jordan and changed the use of land from pastoralism to settled agriculture. The agricultural cycle, relations between landowners and peasants, and the marketing of produce are illustrated through a series of case studies, including that of the author's own family estate. Drawing extensively on family papers, as well as British, Jordanian, Ottoman and French sources, this book should make a valuable contribution to the literature on historical geography and the social history of the Middle East.