Allometry, the study of the growth rate of an organism's parts in relation to the whole, has produced various results in research on animals. This text applies allometry to studies of the evolution, morphology, physiology and reproduction of plants. The author covers a broad spectrum of plant life, from unicellular algae to towering trees, including fossil as well as extant taxa. He examines the relation between organic size and variations in plant form, metabolism, reproduction and evolution, and draws on the zoological literature to develop allometric techniques for the peculiar problems of plant height, the relation between body mass and body length, and size-correlated variations in rates of growth. For readers unfamiliar with the basics of allometry, an appendix explains basic statistical methods. This text should be useful reading for botanists interested in an original, quantitative approach to plant evolution and function, and for zoologists who want to learn more about the value of allometric techniques for studying evolution.
1 Growth and Metabolism Introduction Growth and Development/Multicellularity and Modular Construction Size and Shape Scaling Principles/Dimensional Analysis The 2/3-Power Law The 3/4-Power Law Growth and Time Photosynthesis and Two Physical Laws Organs versus Organisms Summary 2 Aquatic Plants Introduction Absorption Coefficients of Water and Plant Cells The Package Effect and the Scaling of Cell Geometry and Shape The Transport Equations and Dimensionless Groupings of Variables Fluid Flow and Mass and Heat Transport: Phytoplankton Self-Propulsion: The Volvocales The Mechanics of Ciliary Motion Hydrodynamic Forces and the Mechanics of Attached Aquatic Plants Summary 3 Terrestrial Plants Introduction Heat and Mass Transfer and Boundary Layer Resistances Stomatal Resistances The Mechanical Scaling of Foliage Leaves Mechanical Design: General Considerations The Mechanical Scaling of Tree Height The Mechanical Scaling of Other Terrestrial Plants The Scaling of Self-Thinning Summary 4 Reproduction Introduction The Scaling of Reproductive Biomass Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Branches and Reproductive Structures The Scaling of Long-Distance Dispersal Size and Gender Expression Summary 5 Evolution Introduction Heterochrony Heterauxesis and Allomorphosis On Being Small or Large The Scaling of the Plant Life Cycle The Evolution of Plant Life Histories Summary