Plastics and Environmental Sustainability: Fact and Fiction

Plastics and Environmental Sustainability: Fact and Fiction

By: Anthony L. Andrady (author)Hardback

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Description

Survey s the issues typically raised in discussions of sustainability and plastics * Discusses current issues not covered in detail previously such as ocean litter, migration of additives into food products and the recovery of plastics * Covers post-consumer fate of plastics on land and in the oceans, highlighting the environmental impacts of disposal methods * Details toxicity of plastics, particularly as it applies to human health * Presents a clear analysis of the key plastic-related issues including numerous citations of the research base that supports and contradicts the popularly held notions

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About Author

Anthony L. Andrady, PhD, is an Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the North Carolina State University. An accomplished Polymer Scientist, Dr. Andrady has published over a hundred original research papers and book chapters on Polymers. He is a Fellow of both the Royal Society of Chemistry and the National College of Rubber Technology (London, England). Dr. Andrady edited Plastics and the Environment (Wiley, 2003) and authored Science and Technology of Polymer Nanofibers (Wiley, 2007).

Contents

Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii List of Plastic Materials xix 1 The Anthropocene 1 1.1 Energy Futures 6 1.1.1 Fossil Fuel Energy 8 1.1.1.1 Oil 8 1.1.1.2 Coal 9 1.1.1.3 Gas 10 1.1.1.4 Nuclear Energy 11 1.1.2 Renewable Energy 12 1.1.2.1 Wind Energy 12 1.1.2.2 Solar Energy 13 1.1.2.3 Solar Biomass Energy 13 1.2 Materials Demand in the Future 14 1.2.1 Materials of Construction 15 1.2.2 Metal Resources 16 1.2.3 Critical Materials 18 1.2.4 Plastic Materials 19 1.3 Environmental Pollution 22 1.3.1 Classifying Pollution Impacts 23 1.3.2 Climate Change and Global Warming 24 References 27 2 A Sustainability Primer 31 2.1 The Precautionary Principle 33 2.1.1 Objectives in Sustainability 35 2.2 Microeconomics of Sustainability: The Business Enterprise 36 2.3 Models on Implementing Sustainability 38 2.4 Life Cycle Analysis 41 2.5 The Emerging Paradigm and the Plastics Industry 44 2.5.1 Examples from Plastics Industry 47 2.5.1.1 Using the Minimum Energy Needed to Manufacture Products 47 2.5.1.2 Using the Energy Mix with a Minimal Environmental Footprint 47 2.5.1.3 Recovering Waste Process Energy for Reuse 48 2.5.1.4 Using Only as Much Material as Is Needed to Ensure Functionality 48 2.5.1.5 Using More of Renewable and Recycled Raw Materials 48 2.5.1.6 Reusing and Recycling Postuse Products 49 2.5.1.7 Minimizing Externalities at Source: Green Chemistry 49 2.5.1.8 Avoiding Toxic Components and Potential Hazards Associated with Products and Processes 50 2.5.1.9 Converting the Pollutants into Resources 50 References 51 3 An Introduction to Plastics 55 3.1 Polymer Molecules 56 3.1.1 Size of Polymer Molecules 57 3.2 Consequences of Long ]Chain Molecular Architecture 59 3.2.1 Molecular Weight of Chain Molecules 59 3.2.2 Tacticity 61 3.2.3 Partially Crystalline Plastics 62 3.2.4 Chain Branching and Cross ]Linking 63 3.2.5 Glass Transition Temperature 66 3.3 Synthesis of Polymers 67 3.3.1 Addition or Chain Growth Reaction 68 3.3.2 Condensation or Step Growth Reaction 69 3.3.3 Copolymers 72 3.4 Testing of Polymers 72 3.4.1 T ensile Properties 73 3.4.2 Thermal Properties: DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) 74 3.4.3 Thermal Properties: TGA 76 3.5 Common Plastics 76 3.5.1 Polyethylenes 77 3.5.2 Polypropylenes 78 3.5.3 Polystyrene 78 3.5.4 Poly(vinyl chloride) 80 References 81 4 Plastic Products 83 4.1 Plastics: The Miracle Material 84 4.2 Plastic Production, Use, and Disposal 88 4.2.1 From Resin to Products 90 4.2.1.1 Resin Manufacture 90 4.2.1.2 Compounding 90 4.2.1.3 Processing into Product 91 4.3 Processing Methods for Common Thermoplastics 91 4.3.1 Injection Molding 91 4.3.2 Extrusion 95 4.3.3 Blow Molding 95 4.4 The Environmental Footprint of Plastics 97 4.4.1 Energy Considerations in Resin Manufacture 98 4.4.2 Atmospheric Emissions from Plastics Industry 101 4.5 Plastics Additives 103 4.5.1 Fillers for Plastics 106 4.5.2 Plasticizers in PVC 106 4.6 Biopolymer or Bio ]Derived Plastics 107 4.6.1 Bio ]Based Plastics and Sustainability 109 4.6.2 Emerging Bio ]Based Plastics 111 4.6.2.1 Bio ]PE 112 4.6.2.2 Bio ]PET 112 4.6.2.3 PLA 113 4.6.2.4 Poly(Hydroxyalkanoates) 115 4.6.2.5 Bio ]Based Thermosets: PU 116 References 116 5 Societal Benefits of Plastics 121 5.1 Transportation Applications of Plastics 122 5.1.1 Passenger Cars 122 5.1.2 Air and Sea Transport 124 5.2 Benefits from Plastic Packaging 126 5.2.1 Waste Reduction 129 5.2.2 Chemical and Microbial Protection 130 5.3 Plastics in Agriculture 131 5.4 Building Industry Applications 132 5.4.1 Pipes, Conduit, and Cladding 133 5.4.2 Extruded PVC Cladding and Window Frames 134 5.4.3 Foam Insulation 135 5.4.4 Wood Plastic Composites 137 5.5 Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) 138 5.6 Using Plastics Sustainably 139 References 140 6 Degradation of Plastics in the Environment 145 6.1 Defining Degradability 146 6.2 Chemistry of Light ]Induced Degradation 147 6.2.1 Light ]Initiated Photo ]Oxidation in PE and PP 150 6.2.2 Embrittlement and Fragmentation 152 6.2.3 Temperature and Humidity Effects on Degradation 154 6.2.4 Wavelength ]Dependent Photodamage 155 6.2.5 Testing Plastics for Photodegradability 157 6.3 Enhanced Photodegradable Polyolefins 160 6.3.1 Effects of Photodegradation on Biodegradation 162 6.4 Biodegradation of Polymers 163 6.4.1 Terminology and Definitions 165 6.4.2 Biodegradable Plastics 168 6.4.3 Testing Readily Biodegradable Plastics 170 6.5 Biodegradability of Common Polymers 173 6.5.1 Additives that Enhance Degradation in Common Polymers 175 6.5.2 Degradable Plastics and Sustainable Development 176 References 178 7 Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals 185 7.1 Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals Used in Plastics Industry 187 7.2 BPA {2,2 ]Bis(4 ]Hydroxyphenyl)Propane} 187 7.2.1 Exposure to BPA 190 7.2.2 Effects of Exposure to BPA 192 7.2.3 Dose Response Relationships of BPA 194 7.2.4 Safe Levels of BPA 194 7.2.5 Contrary Viewpoint on BPA 196 7.2.6 Environmental Sustainability and BPA 197 7.3 Phthalate Plasticizers 198 7.3.1 Exposure to Phthalates 201 7.3.2 Toxicity of Phthalates 203 7.3.3 Environmental Sustainability and Phthalates 203 7.4 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) 204 7.4.1 Toxicity of PBDEs 207 7.4.2 Environmental Sustainability and PBDE 208 7.5 Alkylphenols and Their Ethoxylates (APE) 209 7.6 EDCs and PET Bottles 209 References 212 8 Plastics and Health Impacts 227 8.1 Packaging versus the Contents 228 8.1.1 Packaging Milk in HDPE 230 8.1.2 Overpackaging 232 8.2 Package Food Interactions 233 8.2.1 Oxygen and Water Permeability 234 8.2.2 Additive Migration and Toxicity 236 8.2.3 Residual Monomer in Packaging Resin 240 8.2.4 Scalping of Flavor Components 240 8.3 Styrene and Expanded Polystyrene Food Service Materials 242 8.3.1 Exposure to Styrene from Packaging 244 8.3.2 Leachate from PET Bottles 244 8.4 Ranking Common Plastics 245 8.4.1 PVC 248 References 249 9 Managing Plastic Waste 255 9.1 Recovery of Waste 258 9.1.1 Material Recycling 261 9.1.2 Feedstock Recovery 261 9.1.3 Energy Recovery 261 9.2 Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste for Feedstock Recovery 261 9.2.1 Direct Thermolysis 261 9.2.2 Hydrogenation or hydrocracking 264 9.2.3 Gasification 265 9.2.3.1 Thermal Gasification 265 9.2.3.2 Plasma Arc Gasification 266 9.2.4 Feedstock Recycling 267 9.2.5 Landfilling 271 9.2.6 Plastics Waste Incineration 272 9.2.7 Biological Recovery Technologies 274 9.3 Sustainable Waste Management Choices 275 9.4 Mechanical Recycling of Plastics 278 9.4.1 Recycling: A Sustainable Choice 281 9.5 Recycling Bottles: Beverage Bottles and Jugs 282 9.5.1 Bottle ]to ]Bottle Recycling 282 9.5.2 Open ]Loop Recycling 284 9.5.3 Recycling of HDPE 285 9.6 Designing for Recyclability 285 References 286 10 Plastics in the Oceans 295 10.1 Origins of Plastics in the Ocean 297 10.2 Weathering of Plastics in the Ocean Environment 299 10.2.1 Beach (Supralittoral) Zone 300 10.2.2 Surface Water Zone 301 10.2.3 Deep Water and Sediment Zones 301 10.2.3.1 Comparison of the Weathering Rates in Different Zones 301 10.3 Microplastic Debris 304 10.3.1 Primary and Secondary Microplastics 305 10.3.2 Persistent Organic Pollutant in Microplastics 307 10.3.3 Ingestion of Microplastics by Marine Species 309 10.4 Ocean Litter and Sustainability 310 References 311 Index 319

Product Details

  • publication date: 13/03/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118312605
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 352
  • ID: 9781118312605
  • weight: 598
  • ISBN10: 1118312600

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