Despite the democratic waves of the past decades, the 20th century was at least as much a century of political extremism. Even today, liberal democracy is increasingly challenged within its traditional heartlands of North America and Western Europe. This Major Work will bring together key papers on political extremism and radicalism, focussing predominantly upon extremism and radicalism within (liberal) democratic contexts, but also moving beyond this by including both (particularly historic) studies of the main extremist regimes and articles of the 20th century.
Curated by a leading voice in the field, the articles are mapped and set in context by the introductory chapters which open each of the work's four volumes. Each volume focuses on a key area in the topic:
Volume One: Extremism and Democracy: Concept, Theories and Responses
Volume Two: Historical Extremism
Volume Three: Right-Wing Extremism
Volume Four: Left-Wing Extremism
Cas Mudde is Assistant Professor in the Department of International Affairs of the University of Georgia. Previously he taught at various universities in Europe and the US. He is the co-founder and former convener of the ECPR (European Consortium for Political Research) Standing Group on Extremism & Democracy. He is the editor of the Working Paper series on Political Concepts and Political Methodology of the IPSA (International Political Science Association) Committee on Concepts and Methods and serves on the editorial boards of academic journals such as Comparative Political Studies, European Journal of Political Research, and Politics in Central Europe. His research includes the areas of political parties, extremism, democracy, civil society and European politics.
VOLUME ONE: EXTREMISM AND DEMOCRACY: CONCEPT, THEORIES AND RESPONSES PART ONE: CONCEPTS Meaning and Forms of Political Present in Past and Present - Uwe Backes The Crippled Epistemology of Extremism - Russell Hardin The Problem of Extremism - Ronald Wintrobe PART TWO: THEORIES Mass Society and Extremist Politics - Joseph Gusfield Fascism - Seymour Martin Lipset Left, Right and Center Political Extremism - Robert Smith Left, Center and Right Pathways to Extremism - Manus Midlarsky Extremist Parties and Political Turmoil - G. Bingham Powell Jr. Two Puzzles Status Consistency and Right-Wing Extremism - Gary Rush Ten Theories of the Extreme Right - Roger Eatwell The Populist Radical Right - Cas Mudde A Pathological Normalcy PART THREE: RESPONSES Electoral Regimes and the Proscription of Anti-Democratic Parties - John Finn Free Speech and Political Extremism - Carl Cohen How Nasty Are We Free to Be? Defending Democracy - Stefan Rummens and Koen Abts The Concentric Containment of Political Extremism VOLUME TWO: HISTORICAL EXTREMISM PART ONE: TOTALITARIANISM The Totalitarian Movement - Hannah Arendt The General Characteristics of Totalitarian Dictatorship - Carl Joachim Friedrich and Zbigniew Brzezinski Towards a Comparative Politics of Movement-Regimes - Robert Tucker PART TWO: FASCISM AND NAZISM Introduction - Zeev Sternhell, Mario Sznayder and Maia Asheri Fascism as an Alternative Political Culture Comparing Fascist Movements - Peter Merkl Political Space and Fascism as a Late-Comer - Juan Linz Conditions Conducive to the Success or Failure of Fascism as a Mass Movement in Inter-War Europe Towards a New Model of Generic Fascism - Roger Eatwell Who, Indeed, Did Vote for Hitler? - Thomas Childers Fascism, National Socialism and Conservatives in Europe, 1914-1945 - Carl Levy Issues for Comparativists PART THREE: COMMUNISM Did the Russian Revolution Have to Happen? - Richard Pipes The Antecedent and Prototypes of the System - Janos Kornai Was Stalin Really Necessary? - Alec Nove The Stalinist Experience in Eastern Europe - George Schoepflin The Comparative Study of Communist Political Systems - Alfred Meyer Soviet Neo-Traditionalism - Ken Jowitt The Political Corruption of a Leninist Regime What Was Communism? A Retrospective in Comparative Analysis - Andrew Janos VOLUME THREE: RIGHT-WING EXTREMISM PART ONE: POST-WAR EXTREME RIGHT POLITICAL ACTORS Caught in Its Own Net - Roger Griffin Post-War Fascism outside Europe 'Classic' Fascism and the New Radical Right in Western Europe - Diethelm Prowe Comparisons and Contrasts The Radical Right - Seymour Martin Lipset A Problem for American Democracy? Right-Wing Extremism in Post-War Europe - Klaus von Beyme Racist Extremism in Central and Eastern Europe - Cas Mudde The Ideological Shift on the Russian Radical Right - Mariene Laruelle From Demonizing the West to Fear of Migrants Conservative and Right-Wing Movements - Kathleen Blee and Kimberly Creasap PART TWO: EXPLANATIONS The Silent Counter-Revolution - Piero Ignazi Hypotheses on the Emergence of Extreme Right-Wing Parties in Europe The Contemporary Radical Right - Herbert Kitschelt (in collaboration with A.J. McGann) An Interpretative and Explanatory Framework Is Extreme Right-Wing Populism Contagious? Explaining the Emergence of a New Party Family - Jens Rydgren Explaining the Rise of Racist and Extreme Right Violence in Western Europe - Ruud Koopmans Grievances or Opportunities? Electoral Sociology - Kai Arzheimer Who Votes for the Extreme Right and Why - and When? The Sociology of the Radical Right - Jens Rydgren The Radical Right in Post-Socialist Central and Eastern Europe - Michael Minkenberg Comparative Observations and Interpretations PART THREE: CONSEQUENCES Against the System - Hans-Georg Betz Radical Right-Wing Populism's Challenge to Liberal Democracy Reacting to the Radical Right - David Art Lessons from Germany and Austria The Defending Democracy and the Extreme Right - Ami Pedahzur A Comparative Analysis Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe - Cas Mudde So What? VOLUME FOUR: LEFT-WING EXTREMISM PART ONE: RADICAL LEFT PARTIES IN EUROPE What's Left of the Radical Left? The European Radical Left since 1989 - Luke March and Cas Mudde Decline and Mutation 'Conclusion' from Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe - Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau 'Introduction' from Radical Left Parties in Europe - Luke March Comparative Perspectives on Communist Successor Parties in Central-Eastern Europe and Eurasia - Taras Kuzio The Radical Left in Coalition Government - Richard Dunphy and Tim Bale Towards a Comparative Measurement of Success and Failure Out of Left Field? Explaining the Variable Electoral Success of European Radical Left Parties - Luke March and Charlotte Rommerskirchen PART TWO: LEFT POPULIST PARTIES IN LATIN AMERICA The Resurgence of Radical Populism in Latin America - Carlos de la Torre Latin America's Populist Revival - Kenneth Roberts Populism and Democracy in Latin America - Francisco Panizza and Romino Miorelli PART THREE: EXTREME LEFT SOCIAL MOVEMENTS From Seattle to Porto Alegre - Jose Seoane and Emilio Taddei The Anti-Neo-Liberal Globalization Movement 'This Is What Democracy Looks Like' - Jose Pedro Zuquete Is Representation under Siege? Why Does Occupy Matter? - Jenny Pickerill and John Krinsky The Occupy Movement - Jacquelien Van Stekelenburg Product of This Time Religion, Violence and Radical Environmentalism - Taylor Bron From Earth First! To the Unabomber to the Earth Liberation Front