Power Systems and Restructuring

Power Systems and Restructuring

By: Nouredine Hadjsaid (author), Jean-Claude Sabonnadiere (author)Hardback

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Description

The development of electric power systems has been made up of incremental innovations from the end of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century. The creation of deregulated electricity markets has brought about an emerging paradigm in which the relationships between producers, power system operators and consumers have changed enormously compared to the monopolistic case. The scope of this book is to provide fundamental concepts of the physics and operation of transmission and distribution lines, which is the content of Part 1, followed by the models and tools for the description and simulation of large electrical grids for steady state and transient operation. These advanced tools allow the physics and technology of power systems to be described and the algorithms of Ybus and Zbus matrices to be built for various studies such as short-circuit studies and load flow or transient phenomena analysis. Part 3 deals with the new organization concepts in the frame of deregulated markets. In this part the restructuring of the power industry is presented where various actors interact together through market places or bilateral contracts. In addition, the operation of the power grids under this deregulated context is detailed and the relationships between power system operators and market actors (energy producers and providers, traders, etc.) is explained with several examples. The ancillary services, congestion management and grid access concepts are also described. A large number of exercises and problems disseminated throughout the book with solutions at the end enable the reader to check his understanding of the content at any time.

About Author

Nourredine Hadjsa d, Grenoble INP, France. Jean-Claude Sabonnadi re, INPG, Grenoble, France.

Contents

Foreword xvii Introduction xix Part 1. Transmission Lines and Electric Power Networks 1 Chapter 1. The Two Paradigms of the World Electrical Power System 3 1.1. Introduction 3 1.2. The historical paradigm 5 1.4. Distributed generation 15 Chapter 2. Production of Electrical Energy 17 Chapter 3. General Information on Electrical Power Networks 21 3.1. Transmission and distribution systems 21 3.2. Voltages 23 3.3. Power transfer 25 Chapter 4. Network Architecture 27 4.1. Network architecture: mesh or radial layout 27 4.2. Line and cable technologies 33 4.3. Network components 40 4.4. Short-circuit power 51 4.5. Real and reactive power in sinusoidal situations 55 Chapter 5. Operation of Electric Lines 59 5.1 Operational equations (physical phenomena) 59 5.2. Modeling of lines under steady-state conditions 75 5.3. Exercises 108 Chapter 6. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission 113 6.1. Advantages, disadvantages and fields of application 114 6.2. HVDC link between two points 115 6.3. Operating equations 123 Chapter 7. Three-phase Transmission Lines 127 7.1. Line characteristics 127 7.2. Equations of three-phase lines 134 7.3. Modes of propagation 136 7.4. Exercise No. 11: calculation of parameters of three-phase lines 147 Chapter 8. Electrical Transients in Transmission 149 8.1. Transient analysis using Laplace transform 150 8.2. Method of traveling waves 164 Part 2. Analysis Methods of Electrical Power Systems 173 Chapter 9. Functions of Electrical Energy Systems 175 9.1. Introduction 175 9.2. Hierarchy and representation of electrical power systems 179 Chapter 10. Network Representation 183 10.1. Graphical and topological description of a network 183 10.2. Network global modeling: the CIM model 186 10.3. Matrix representation of networks 187 Chapter 11. Formation of Network Matrices 207 11.1. Formation of the Ybus matrix 208 11.2. Formation of the Zbus matrix 210 11.3. Exercises 220 Chapter 12. Load Flow Calculations 223 12.1. Objectives 223 12.2. Model of network elements 224 12.3. Problem formulation 226 12.4. Solution methods 228 12.5. Software tools for load flow analysis 241 12.6. Principle of numerical iterative methods 241 12.7 Exercises 244 Chapter 13. Transient Analysis Methods 249 13.1. Interest in transient analysis 249 13.2. Transient network analyzer 251 13.3. The method of traveling waves 253 13.4. Conclusions 265 13.5. Exercises 266 Chapter 14. Fault Current Calculations 271 14.1. Definition 271 14.2. Effects of short-circuit conditions 271 14.3. Common causes of faults 272 14.4. Importance of short-circuit current calculations 273 14.5. Types of short circuits 273 14.6. Notion of short-circuit power 275 14.7. Polyphase balanced and unbalanced systems 276 14.8. Generalization of fault calculation in complex networks 296 14.9. Three-phase symmetrical fault current calculations 296 14.10. Symmetrical fault current: systematic approach 298 14.11. Expression of short-circuit current and short-circuit power 302 14.12. Asymmetrical fault current calculations 303 14.13 Exercises 319 Chapter 15. Stability Analysis of Power Systems 323 15.1. Objective 323 15.2. Introduction 323 15.3. Categories and classes of stability problems 324 15.4. The equation of motion 326 15.5. Simplified model of a synchronous machine 331 15.6. Power-angle considerations at steady state 333 15.7. Case of small perturbations 337 15.8. Transient stability 339 15.9. Application of equal-area criteria 343 15.10. Case of a multi-machine system 351 15.11 Exercise No. 22: stability and critical fault clearing time 352 Part 3. Management of Electricity Networks in a Competitive Environment 355 Chapter 16. Basic Electrical System 357 16.1. Introduction 357 16.2. Means of power generation 361 16.3. Transmission network 372 16.4. Distribution network 375 16.5. Consumption 377 16.6. System monitoring 381 16.7. Need for network interconnections 385 16.8. Conclusion 390 Chapter 17. Liberalization of Energy Markets 391 17.1. Introduction 391 17.2. Main electrical system features 393 17.3. Case prior to liberalization: monopoly regime 393 17.4. Liberalization of energy markets: reasons for change 396 17.5. Guidelines and regulations 399 17.6. Liberalization of energy markets: the concept of unbundling 401 17.7. Liberalization of energy markets: industrial movement 405 17.8. Liberalization of energy markets: different market segments and players 405 17.9. Conclusion 418 Chapter 18. Description and Models of Energy Markets 419 18.1. Introduction 419 18.2. Organized market model type 420 18.3. Bilateral market model 424 18.4. Other models 424 18.5. Different markets 427 18.6. Interaction and coupling of markets 430 18.7. Market adjustment 431 18.8. Responsibilities, different markets and interactions 433 18.9. Treatment of losses 433 18.10. Factors influencing prices and their variation 436 18.11. Conclusion 441 Chapter 19. Ancillary Services 443 19.1. Introduction 443 19.2. Some definitions 444 19.3. Frequency adjustment and control 445 19.4. Voltage control 451 19.5. System recovery 455 19.6. Management of ancillary services 455 19.7. Market-based mechanisms for ancillary services 456 19.8. Cost allocation of ancillary services 461 19.9. Example of cost of ancillary services 461 19.10. Conclusion 461 Chapter 20. Available Transmission Capability (ATC) 465 20.1. Introduction 465 20.2. Calculation of maximum power transfer capabilities 467 20.3. Directional aspects and time line in calculating ATC 474 20.4. Availability of information on ATC to market participants 475 20.5. Mechanisms for allocating cross-border capacities 476 20.6. Conclusion 477 Chapter 21. Congestion Management 479 21.1. Introduction 479 21.2. Congestion phenomenon in transmission networks 480 21.3. Factors influencing congestion 481 21.4. Congestion and the market 483 21.5. Technical resolution of congestion 485 21.6. Principle of nodal pricing 486 21.7. Principle of market splitting and zonal pricing 488 21.8. Case of a bilateral market 490 21.9. Case of re-dispatching without taking into account balance constraints of SCs 494 21.10. General formulation of the re-dispatching problem 495 21.11. Case of pool based on the calculation of nodal marginal prices 498 21.12. Hedging the risk of congestion cost 500 21.13. Conclusion 501 Chapter 22. Network Access and Charges 503 22.1. Introduction 503 22.2. Main costs and expenses of electricity transmission 505 22.3. Tariff objectives for electricity transmission 505 22.4. Methods of determining costs and price setting 506 22.5. Some regulation aspects of cost allocation 515 22.6. French example: principles of tariffs on the public transmission system 517 22.7. Tariff for network access in Europe 521 22.8. Conclusion 521 Part 4. Exercise Solutions 525 Chapter 23. Exercise Solutions 527 23.1. Exercise No. 1: per-unit system 527 23.2. Exercise No. 2: parameters of single-phase line 532 23.3. Exercise No. 3: power transfer 541 23.4. Exercise No. 4 550 23.5. Exercise No. 5 554 23.6. Exercise No. 6: lossless long line 559 23.7. Exercise No. 7: long three-phase line with losses 570 23.8. Exercise No. 8: single-phase long line 577 23.9. Exercise No. 9: series compensation of long lines 587 23.10. Exercise No. 10: parameters of a single conductor 593 23.11. Exercise No. 11: calculation of parameters of three-phase lines 597 23.12. Exercise No. 12: construction of Zbus matrix 607 23.13. Exercise No. 13: construction of network matrices 612 23.14. Exercise No. 14: load flow calculations 617 23.15. Exercise No. 15: power flow 630 23.16. Exercise No. 16: matrices and load flow 630 23.17. Exercise No. 17: transient analysis of a line 631 23.18. Exercise No. 18: matrices and transient analysis 632 23.19. Exercise No. 19: transfer analysis under lightning strike 632 23.20. Exercise No. 20: fault current in a simple network 633 23.21. Exercise No. 21: symmetrical fault on a network 648 23.22 Exercise No. 22: stability and critical fault clearing time 659 References 665 Index 671

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781848211209
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 704
  • ID: 9781848211209
  • weight: 1144
  • ISBN10: 1848211201

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