High yields and environmental control in crop farming call for precise adaptations to local growing conditions. Treating large fields in a uniform way by high capacity machinery cannot be regarded as a sustainable method for many situations. Because differences existing within single fields must be considered. The transition from former field work carried out manually or by small implements to present-day high-capacity machinery caused that the farmers lost the immediate and close contact with soils and crops. However, modern sensing and controlling technology can make up for this deficit. High tech methods that include proximal sensing and signals from satellites can provide for controls that allow adjusting farming operations to small fractions of one ha and sometimes even down to some m2, hence in a site-specific mode. This applies to operations for soil cultivation, sowing, fertilizing and plant protection. This book deals with site-specific concepts, applications and results.
The editor and main author - Hermann J. Heege - is Professor Emeritus of the University of Kiel and was formerly head of its Department of Agricultural Systems Engineering. He conceived and initiated the worldwide known concept of the "N Sensor". The chapter about weed control is from Roland Gerhards, Professor of the University of Stuttgart-Hohenheim. Contributions about the use of plant-fluorescence are from Eiko Thiessen, Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Agricultural Systems Engineering of the University of Kiel. Markus Demmel from the Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture in Freising-Weihenstephan and its section head for System Engineering in Crop Farming is author of the chapter about yield sensing.
1 Introduction; Hermann Heege 2 Heterogeneity in Fields: Basics of Analyses; Hermann Heege 2.1 Variation and Resolution 2.2 Semivariance and Semivariogram 2.3 Cell Sizes 2.4 Processing and Adjusting the Resolution 2.5 References 3 Sensing by Electromagnetic Radiation; Hermann Heege 3.1 Basics in Sensing by Electromagnetic Radiation 3.2 Emitted, Absorbed, Reflected and Transmitted Radiation 3.3 Atmospheric Windows and Clouds 3.4 Sensing from Satellites, Aerial Platforms and Field Machines 3.5 Microwaves or Radar instead of Visible or Infrared Waves 3.6 Using Maps or On-The-Go Control in Real-Time 3.7 Georeferencing by Positioning Systems 3.8 References 4 Precision in Guidance of Farm Machinery; Hermann Heege 4.1 Principles of Guidance 4.2 Techniques of GNSS Based Guidance 4.3 Economics of GNSS Based Guidance 4.4 Problems and Solutions on Slopes 4.5 Precision in Section Control of Farm Machines 4.6 References 5 Sensing of Natural Soil Properties; Hermann Heege 5.1 Sensing of Topography 5.2 Sensing of Soil Properties on a Volume Basis 5.3 Sensing of Soil Properties on a Surface Basis by Reflectance 5.4 Summary 5.5 References 6 Sensing of Crop Properties; Hermann Heege and Eiko Thiessen 6.1 Basics of Sensing by Visible and Infrared Reflectance 6.2 Defining the Reflectance by Indices 6.3 Sensing Yield Potential of Crops by Reflectance 6.4 Fluorescence Sensing 6.5 Sensing the Water Supply of Crops by Infrared Radiation 6.6 Sensing Properties of Crops by Microwaves 6.7 References 7 Site-Specific Soil Cultivation; Hermann Heege 7.1 Basic Needs 7.2 Primary Cultivation 7.3 Secondary Cultivation 7.4 Stubble- and Fallow Cultivation 7.5 No-tillage: Prerequisites, Consequences and Prospects 7.6 References 8 Site-Specific Sowing; Hermann Heege 8.1 Seed-Rate or Seed-Density 8.2 Seed Distribution over the Area 8.3 Seeding Depth 8.4 Less Tillage, Crop Residues and Sowing Methods 8.5 References 9 Site-Specific Fertilizing; Hermann Heege 9.1 Fertilizing based on Nutrient Removal by Previous Crops 9.2 Fertilizing based on Soil Sensing by Ion-Selective Electrodes 9.3 Fertilizing based on Reflectance of Soils 9.4 Fertilizing Nitrogen based on In-Season Crop Properties 9.5 Summary 9.6 References 10 Site-Specific Weed Control; Roland Gerhards 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Weed Mapping 10.3 Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Weed Population 10.4 Site-specific Weed Control 10.5 Outlook and Perspectives 10.6 References 11 Site-Specific Sensing for Fungicide Spraying; Eiko Thiessen and Hermann Heege 11.1 The Situation for Site-Specific Fungicide Applications 11.2 The Full-Area Preventive Concept based on Biomass 11.3 The Discrete-Spot Sensing Concept based on Reflectance 11.4 The Discrete-Spot Sensing Concept based on Fluorescence 11.5 Differentiation between N Deficiency and Effects of Fungi 11.6 Summary and Prospects 11.7 References 12 Site-Specific Recording of Yields; Markus Demmel 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Principle of Site-Specific Yield Recording 12.3 Yield Measurement for Combinable Crops 12.4 Yield Measurement for Forage Crops 12.5 Yield Sensing for Root Crops 12.6 Yield Measurement for Other Crops 12.7 Quality Sensing of Harvested Material 12.8 Processing and Mapping of Yield Data 12.9 References 13 Fusions, Overlays and Management Zones; Hermann Heege 13.1 Crop Growth Factors, Sensing and Information Use 13.2 Sensor Fusion - Solutions and Approaches 13.3 From Properties to Treatment - Map Overlay 13.4 From Properties to Treatment - Management Zones 13.5 References 14 Summary and Perspectives; Hermann Heege Index