Precision Medicine: A Guide to Genomics in Clinical Practice

Precision Medicine: A Guide to Genomics in Clinical Practice

By: Jeanette J. Mccarthy (author), Bryce A. Mendelsohn (author)Paperback

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Description

A complete how-to guide for incorporating genomics into all applicable areas of clinical medicine Precision Medicine: A Guide to Genomics in Clinical Practice is a comprehensive, yet succinct overview of the practice of genomic medicine. It is written for general healthcare practitioners, specialists, and trainees with the goal of providing detailed guidance on how to incorporate genomic medicine into daily practice. To be as clinically relevant as possible, the book intentionally avoids excessive technical content and consistently emphasizes real-life patient care and decision support. Precision Medicine: A Guide to Genomics in Clinical Practice follows the course of a human life, beginning before conception through pregnancy, childhood, and adulthood, discussing the current and future applications of genomics and precision medicine at each stage. This organization allows healthcare providers to easily find the information relevant to their practice. Throughout, the authors highlight common pitfalls - technical and ethical - that might complicate the delivery of quality genomic healthcare. The book is enhanced by eleven valuable appendices that cover important topics ranging from the basics of genetics to ethical issues to regulation and reimbursement. If you are searching for a clinically relevant, non-technical resource that will teach you how genomic medicine can and should be practiced in your specific field of interest, Precision Medicine: A Guide to Genomics in Clinical Practice belongs on your desk.

About Author

Jeanette J. McCarthy, MPH, PhD (San Francisco, CA) Adjunct Associate Professor, University of California, San Francisco. Bryce A. Mendelsohn, MD, PhD (San Francisco, CA) Medical Genetics Clinical Fellow, University of California, San Francisco.

Contents

Chapters 1-4: Pregnancy and childhood Chapter 1: Preconception What are the applications of precision medicine in the preconception period? Infertility Carrier screening - traditional and expanded Genetic counselling, reimbursement, where to get tested Future prospects: Preimplantation genetic testing Chapter 2: Pregnancy What are the applications of precision medicine during pregnancy? Triple/quad screening Amniocentesis/CVS Trisomy testing using non-invasive (cfDNA) methods Future prospects: expanded uses of cfDNA testing during pregnancy Chapter 3: The Newborn What are the applications of precision medicine in the newborn period? What are the situations when a clinician should consider a genetic diagnosis, what tests are commonly used, what evaluation can be performed by the non-specialist versus when to refer to a specialist. Mandatory newborn screening Broad classification and evaluation of birth defects Broad classification and evaluation of metabolic disease Future prospects: Sequencing from birth Chapter 4: Childhood and Adolescence What are the applications of precision medicine during childhood and adolescence? Autism and Developmental delay Childhood cancer (hereditary cancer) Rare diseases and diagnostic sequencing Support and advocacy for rare diseases Chapters 5-9: Adulthood Chapter 5: Pharmacogenetics What pharmacogenetic tests are available? How valid and useful are they? Types of pharmacogenetic markers Efficacy-based, companion diagnostics Safety-based, avoiding severe adverse events Dosing-based Understanding CYP450 alleles Sources of information about pharmacogenetic tests Drug labels Evidence guidelines PharmGKB, Dutch group Chapter 6: Heart Disease How is precision medicine being applied in heart disease? Predisposition/diagnostic testing for myocardial infarction, thrombosis risk, arrhythmias The utility of prognostic markers (e.g. CardioDx test) Managing dose, efficacy and side effects of cardiovascular drugs using pharmacogenomics Clopidogrel, Warfarin, Simvastatin Chapter 7: Infectious disease How is precision medicine being applied in infectious disease? Managing dose, efficacy and side effects of ID drugs using pharmacogenomics * Tracking outbreaks, pathogen discovery * Future prospects: diagnostic sequencing Chapter 8: Cancer How is precision medicine being applied in cancer? Diagnostic/predisposition testing for Hereditary cancers HBOC, Lynch Syndrome, rare hereditary cancer syndromes Managing dose, efficacy and side effects of cancer drugs using pharmacogenetics Irinotecan, Belinostat, Azothioprine, Capecitaban, Tamoxifen, Oliparib The genetic landscape of tumors Prognostic markers Targeted treatment and companion diagnostics Tumor profiling and expanded treatment options Future prospects: cfDNA for screening, diagnosing and monitoring cancer Chapter 9: The Brain - Mental Health and Neurodegeneration How is precision medicine being applied in mental health and neurodegenerative disease? Predisposition/diagnostic testing for epilepsies, Alzheimer, Parkinson diseases Managing dose, efficacy and side effects of antidepressant, antipsychotic, anti-seizure drugs using pharmacogenomics Appendices. Conceptual framework for understanding genomic and precision medicine Appendix 1: Genome variation Describes the structure and organization of the human genome and the different types of variation, their consequences and distribution in different populations DNA, RNA, Protein variation Origin and types of genetic (DNA) variation (from big to small) Consequences of genetic variation Patterns of genetic variation across populations and ancestry Appendix 2: Laboratory methods to detect genome variation A roadmap of different testing methods that a practitioner may come across, what they can measure, and what are their limitations. Includes sample test requisitions and reports with graphical interpretation. DNA variation (aCGH, karyotyping, FISH,Targeted genotyping, SNP arrays, Sanger and next-gen sequencing -whole genome, whole exome, panel) The unique mitochondrial genome RNA variation (QrtPCR, Transcript arrays, next-gen sequencing) Protein variation (IHC, mass spectrometry) Epigenome variation (Bisulfite sequencing) How to find a testing laboratory (general information, specifics discussed within each disease type) Appendix 3: Genetic variation and disease How is genetic variation related to disease? Inheritance patterns Penetrance, expressivity, environmental influences Family history: why it still matters Appendix 4: Evidence base How do we know if a gene-trait association is valid or clinically useful? * Evaluating the evidence o Establishing the role of the gene in disease * Clinical validity (PPV, NPV) * Clinical utility (cost effectiveness, comparative effectiveness) * Where to find evidence, information and practice guidelines How do we determine pathogenicity of variants in a diagnostic setting? * Different types of evidence used in variant classification * ACMG framework for variant classification * Clinvar and other variant databases Appendix 5: Regulation and reimbursement How do regulation and reimbursement play a role in the delivery of precision medicine? US FDA and genetic testing Insurance coverage of genomic t ests in the US * Access to genetic testing Appendix 6: Cross-cutting ethical issues What key ethical issues to be aware of with genetic testing? Secondary/incidental findings Discrimination and GINA Privacy and sharing Testing minors Population screening Eugenics and disability rights How to gather appropriate informed consent

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781259644139
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 240
  • ID: 9781259644139
  • weight: 499
  • ISBN10: 1259644138

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