Transient flows in pipe/channel systems and components can have significant implications for their safe design and operation. It is important to avoid contamination of the environment or of the fluid being transported. Transient flow simulation and analysis is an essential requirement for assuring the safe operation of pipework systems. It has been shown to improve the availabiliy and reliability of pipework with considerable savings in maintenance, repair and liability costs. User-friendly software is available to assist engineers in many aspects of the field, but users should properly understand the physical process involved and the wide range of problems that can occur. They can then make informed interpretations of output. Without this know-how projects may proceed with a false sense of security and consequent risk.
The papers included in "Pressure Surges" will deal with all aspects of unsteady flow and fluid transients in a variety of industries covering energy and power; oil and gas; chemical, process and petrochemical; water supply; building services; utilities systems; and other industries involving problems in: compressible, multi-phase and open channel/free surface flows; filing and draining, pressure surge alleviation; flow-induced vibrations and resonance; fluid-structure interaction; waterhammer and unsteady pipe flows; and turbomachine modelling, regulation and governing. "Pressure Surges" focues on safe and reliable design, including health, safety and environmental verification and should be of interest to all those engineers, project managers, commissioning and plant engineers, system designers, R&D engineers, academics and research students, and all those involved with this important area of engineering.
Part 1 Pressure surges issues in the industrial context: caution - pressure surges in process and industrial systems may be fatal; underground storage cavity safety improvement; waterhammer in high pressure multiphase flow; waterhammer control in Kaplan turbine hydroelectric power plants. Part 2 Pressure surge control: optimal control of pressure surges in pipe networks; discrete optimal control of transients in water distribution networks by linear quadratic regulator theory; dynamic valve characteristics -measurement and improved calculation of pressure surges; anti-pressure surge developments on dual plate check valves. Part 3 Venting of air and surge protection: rapid expulsion of entrapped air through an orifice; experimental setup of entrapped air pockets model validation; pressure surges in water mains caused by air release; response of "duckbill" elastomer check valves under transient flow conditions; leak location in pipe systems using pressure surges. Part 4 Numerical methods: towards automatic error limitation in MOC analyses; numerical accuracy in unsteady compressible flows; numerical solution of the advection equation with reaction under transient conditions; variable wave-speed transients computed by Godunov-type schemes. Part 5 Design standards and tools: selection of transient analysis of software for pipeline design - towards a European standard; design criteria applied to pressurized gravity systems; pressure surges -experimental investigations and calculations with software codes using different physical models and assumptions; computer modelling for the hydraulic design and control of water pumping mains. Part 6 Fundamentals: celebrations and challenges -waterhammer at the start of the 20th and 21st centuries; travelling discontinuities in waterhammer theory - attenuation due to friction; friction-dependent wavefront evolution; steady-state in hydraulic systems by marching methods; phase change and pipe fracture analysis by negative surge pressure; failure of plastic water pipes by surge and cavitation. Part 7 Free surface flows: the simulation of time dependent flows within building utility services systems; transition for partially full to full flow in sloping pipes; interaction between strong unsteady free surface flows and canal singularities numerical and experimental results; explicit Chang and Moll scheme of computing unsteady flows in open channels; advances in unsteady friction modelling in transient pipe flow. Part 8 Developments in unsteady friction: investigation of an unsteady friction model for waterhammer and column separation; pressure transient dissipative effects - a contribution for their computational prediction; actual unsteady velocity profiles in pressurized pipes and the steady-state approach; on weighting function for wall shear stress during unsteady turbulent pipe flow. Part 9 Frequency - domain methods and problems: pipe network identification through signal analysis techniques; flow-induced acous