The HIV/AIDS epidemic has the potential to impede and even reverse development if not addressed early enough. Poverty and income inequality have been shown to facilitate the diffusion of HIV epidemics. While abject poverty in the Middle East and North Africa region remains low, a significant proportion of the population (23.2 per cent) live under $2 per day and are extremely vulnerable in their ability to cope with shocks. In order to preserve the benefits of national and regional development investments put in place by governments, and donor agencies, greater investments to improve HIV/AIDS advocacy, information and prevention strategies are needed now to maintain the current low prevalence levels. This title outlines the role of the Bank in confronting the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region based on a review of needs and gaps at the regional and country level.