Process and Plant Safety: Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics

Process and Plant Safety: Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics

By: Jurgen Schmidt (editor)Hardback

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The safe operation of plants is of paramount importance in the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. Best practice in process and plant safety allows both the prevention of hazards and the mitigation of consequences. Safety Technology is continuously advancing to new levels and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already successfully established as a tool to ensure the safe operation of industrial plants. With CFD tools, a great amount of knowledge can be gained as both the necessary safety measures and the economic operation of plants can be simultaneously determined. Young academics, safety experts and safety managers in all parts of the industry will henceforth be forced to responsibly judge these new results from a safety perspective. This is the main challenge for the future of safety technology. This book serves as a guide to elaborating and determining the principles, assumptions, strengths, limitations and application areas of utilizing CFD in process and plant safety, and safety management. The book offers recommendations relating to guidelines, procedures, frameworks and technology for creating a higher level of safety for chemical and petrochemical plants. It includes modeling aids and concrete examples of industrial safety measures for hazard prevention.

About Author

Jurgen Schmidt has worked as a safety expert for more than 25 years at Hoechst AG, Frankfurt and BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany. Since 2002 he lectures in Process and Plant Safety at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. Prof. Schmidt studied Process Engineering at the University Bochum, Germany, and at the Texas A&M University, USA. His main fi elds of interest are smart safety concepts (combining safety and economics), two-phase gas/liquid flow, safety devices and cyclone separators, high pressure fluid flow and condensation in natural gas pipelines. He has published more than 100 scientifi c articles in these areas. Prof. Schmidt is member of the steering committee of ProcessNet?s Safety Engineering Section (a group of Dechema) in Germany and chairs the working group 'Safe Design of Chemical Plants'. Currently he leads ISO's standardization working party for 'Flashing liquids in safety devices'. In addition he is member of the board in the European DIERS User Group. He has received numerous awards from the Industry and the European Process Safety Centre.


Preface XIX List of Contributors XXI 1 Computational Fluid Dynamics: the future in safety technology! 1 Jurgen Schmidt 2 Organized by ProcessNet: Tutzing Symposion 2011 CFD its Future in Safety Technology 5 Norbert Pfeil 2.1 ProcessNet an Initiative of DECHEMA and VDI-GVC 5 2.2 A Long Discussed Question: Can Safety Engineers Rely on Numerical Methods? 7 3 CFD and Holistic Methods for Explosive Safety and Risk Analysis 9 Arno Klomfass and Klaus Thoma 3.1 Introduction 9 3.2 Deterministic and Probabilistic Design Tasks 11 3.3 CFD Applications on Explosions and Blast Waves 12 3.4 Engineering Methods: The TNT Equivalent 22 3.5 QRA for Explosive Safety 25 3.6 Summary and Outlook 27 References 28 Part One CFD Today Opportunities and Limits if Applied to Safety Techology 31 4 Status and Potentials of CFD in Safety Analyses Using the Example of Nuclear Power 33 Horst Michael Prasser 4.1 Introduction 33 4.2 Safety and Safety Analysis of Light Water Reactors 33 4.3 Role and Status of Fluid Dynamics Modeling 36 4.4 Expected Benefits of CFD in Nuclear Reactor Safety 37 4.5 Challenges 40 4.6 Examples of Applications 42 4.7 Beyond-Design-Based Accidents 53 References 66 Part Two Computer or Experimental Design? 69 5 Sizing and Operation of High-Pressure Safety Valves 71 Jurgen Schmidt and Wolfgang Peschel 5.1 Introduction 71 5.2 Phenomenological Description of the Flow through a Safety Valve 71 5.3 Nozzle/Discharge Coefficient Sizing Procedure 72 5.4 Sizing of Safety Valves Applying CFD 82 5.5 Summary 90 References 93 6 Water Hammer Induced by Fast-Acting Valves Experimental Studies, 1D Modeling, and Demands for Possible Future CFX Calculations 95 Andreas Dudlik and Robert Frohlich 6.1 Introduction 95 6.2 Multi-Phase Flow Test Facility 97 6.3 Extension of Pilot Plant Pipework PPP for Software Validation 99 6.4 Experimental Set-Up 99 6.5 Experimental Results 100 6.7 Possible Chances and Difficulties in the Use of CFX for Water Hammer Calculations 106 6.8 CFD The Future of Safety Technology? 109 References 110 7 CFD-Modeling for Optimizing the Function of Low-Pressure Valves 113 Frank Helmsen and Tobias Kirchner References 119 Part Three Fire and Explosions are CFD Simulations Really Profitable? 121 8 Consequences of Pool Fires to LNG Ship Cargo tanks 123 Benjamin Scholz and Gerd-Michael Wuersig 8.1 Introduction 123 8.2 Evaluation of Heat Transfer 125 8.3 CFD-Calculations 128 8.4 Conclusions 136 References 137 9 CFD Simulation of Large Hydrocarbon and Peroxide Pool Fires 139 Axel Schonbucher, Stefan Schalike, Iris Vela, and Klaus-Dieter Wehrstedt 9.1 Introduction 139 9.2 Governing Equations 139 9.3 Turbulence Modeling 140 9.4 Combustion Modeling 141 9.5 Radiation Modeling 142 9.6 CFD Simulation 144 9.7 Results and Discussion 145 9.8 Conclusions 154 9.9 CFD The Future of Safety Technology? 154 References 155 10 Modeling Fire Scenarios and Smoke Migration in Structures 159 Ulrich Krause, Frederik Rabe, and Christian Knaust 10.1 Introduction 159 10.2 Hierarchy of Fire Models 161 10.3 Balance Equations for Mass, Momentum, and Heat Transfer (CFD Models) 162 10.4 Zone Models 164 10.5 Plume Models 164 10.6 Computational Examples 166 10.7 Conclusions 175 10.8 CFD The Future of Safety Technology? 175 References 177 Part Four CFD Tomorrow The Way to CFD as a Standard Tool in Safety Technology 179 11 The ERCOFTAC Knowledge Base Wiki An Aid for Validating CFD Models 181 Wolfgang Rodi 11.1 Introduction 181 11.2 Structure of the Knowledge Base Wiki 182 11.3 Content of the Knowledge Base 184 11.4 Interaction with Users 185 11.5 Concluding Remarks 185 12 CFD at its Limits: Scaling Issues, Uncertain Data, and the User.s Role 189 Matthias Munch and Rupert Klein 12.1 Numerics and Under-Resolved Simulations 190 12.2 Uncertainties 196 12.3 Theory and Practice 199 12.4 Conclusions 208 References 210 13 Validation of CFD Models for the Prediction of Gas Dispersion in Urban and Industrial Environments 213 Michael Schatzmann and Bernd Leitl 13.1 Introduction 213 13.2 Types of CFD Models 214 13.3 Validation Data 215 13.4 Wind Tunnel Experiments 227 13.5 Summary 229 References 231 14 CFD Methods in Safety Technology Useful Tools or Useless Toys? 233 Henning Bockhorn 14.1 Introduction 233 14.2 Characteristic Properties of Combustion Systems 234 14.3 Practical Problems 247 14.4 Outlook 256 References 257 Part Five Dynamic Systems Are 1D Models Sufficient? 259 15 Dynamic Modeling of Disturbances in Distillation Columns 261 Daniel Staak, Aristides Morillo, and Gunter Wozny 15.1 Introduction 261 15.2 Dynamic Simulation Model 262 15.3 Case Study 268 15.4 CFD- The Future of Safety Technology? 269 15.5 Nomenclature 272 References 274 16 Dynamic Process Simulation for the Evaluation of Upset Conditions in Chemical Plants in the Process Industry 275 16.1 Introduction 275 16.2 Application of Dynamic Process Simulation 277 16.3 Conclusion 293 16.4 Dynamic Process Simulation The Future of Safety Technology? 293 17 The Process Safety Toolbox The Importance of Method Selection for Safety-Relevant Calculations 295 Andy Jones 17.1 Introduction The Process Safety Toolbox 295 17.2 Flow through Nitrogen Piping During Distillation Column Pressurization 296 17.3 Tube Failure in a Wiped-Film Evaporator 301 17.4 Phenol-Formaldehyde Uncontrolled Exothermic Reaction 306 17.5 Computational Fluid Dynamics Is It Ever Necessary? 308 17.6 Computational Fluid Dynamics The Future of Safety Technology? 309 References 311 18 CFD for Reconstruction of the Buncefield Incident 313 Simon E. Gant and G.T. Atkinson 18.1 Introduction 313 18.2 Observations from the CCTV Records 314 18.3 CFD Modeling of the Vapor Cloud Dispersion 318 18.4 Conclusions 328 18.5 CFD: The Future of Safety Technology? 328 References 329 Part Six Contributions for Discussion 331 19 Do We Really Want to Calculate the Wrong Problem as Exactly as Possible? The Relevance of Initial and Boundary Conditions in Treating the Consequences of Accidents 333 Ulrich Hauptmanns 19.1 Introduction 333 19.2 Models 334 19.3 Case Study 339 19.4 Conclusions 345 References 346 20 Can Software Ever be Safe? 349 Frank Schiller and Tina Mattes 20.1 Introduction 349 20.2 Basics 350 20.3 Software Errors and Error Handling 354 20.4 Potential Future Approaches 366 20.5 CFD - The Future of Safety Technology? 367 References 367 21 CFD Modeling: Are Experiments Superfluous? 369 B. Jorgensen and D. Moncalvo References 371 Index 373

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527330270
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 406
  • ID: 9783527330270
  • weight: 916
  • ISBN10: 3527330275

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