Covering the whole value chain - from product requirements and properties via process technologies and equipment to real-world applications - this reference represents a comprehensive overview of the topic. The editors and majority of the authors are members of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering, with backgrounds from academia as well as industry. Therefore, this multifaceted area is highlighted from different angles: essential physico-chemical background, latest measurement and prediction techniques, and numerous applications from cosmetic up to food industry. Recommended reading for process, pharma and chemical engineers, chemists in industry, and those working in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, dyes and pigments industries.
Ulrich Brockel studied chemical engineering at the Technical University of Karlsruhe, and gained his doctorate at the Institute of Mechanical Engineering in 1991. After an industrial career at the BASF process engineering department - leading a team responsible for agglomeration and product design of solids - he became Professor at the University of Applied Sciences Trier in 2000. He is a member of APV, DECHEMA, GVC, and also chairs the section group -"Product Design and Engineering" at the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE). Professor Brockel's work focuses on solids processing and plant design. Willi Meier studied chemistry at the RWTH Aachen, where he gained his PhD in 1992. He is responsible for the international cooperation of the DECHEMA and is coordinating the research activities of the section groups of the EFCE and the European Federation of Biotechnology. In 2013, he was appointed honorary professor at the Technical University of Clausthal. Gerhard Wagner studied chemical engineering at the Technical University of Munich, where he gained his PhD. He has since held different scientific and managerial positions in R&D at Hoffmann-La Roche in Switzerland and DSM in Europe, US and China. After leading the Formulation R&D Department, and being responsible for the R&D strategy development and acquisitions and integrations of R&D groups worldwide, he is currently the Vice President and global R&D director of the DSM Biotechnology Center in Delft and Shanghai. Dr. Wagner co-chairs the section group "Product Design and Engineering" within the EFCE.
INTRODUCTION RHEOLOGY OF DISPERSE SYSTEMS Introduction Basics of Rheology Experimental Methods of Rheology Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions Rheology of Emulsions RHEOLOGY OF COSMETIC EMULSIONS Introduction Chemistry of Cosmetic Emulsions Rheological Measurements Dynamic Mechanical Tests (Oscillation) RHEOLOGY MODIFIERS, THICKENERS, AND GELS Introduction Classification of Thickeners and Gels Definition of a "Gel?? Rheological Behavior of a "Gel?? Classification of Gels Particulate Gels Rheology Modifiers Based on Surfactant Systems USE OF RHEOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS FOR ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTION OF THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT OF CREAMING AND SEDIMENTATION Introduction Accelerated Tests and Their Limitations Application of High Gravity (g) Force Rheological Techniques for Prediction of Sedimentation or Creaming Separation of Formulation ("Syneresis??) Examples of Correlation of Sedimentation or Creaming with Residual (Zero Shear) Viscosity Assessment and Prediction of Flocculation Using Rheological Techniques Examples of Application of Rheology for Assessment and Prediction of Flocculation Assessment and Prediction of Emulsion Coalescence Using Rheological Techniques PREDICTION OF THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUID FORMULATED PRODUCTS Introduction Classification of Products, Properties and Models Pure Compound Property Modeling Functional Bulk Property Modeling ? Mixture Properties Functional Compound Properties in Mixtures ? Modeling Performance Related Property Modeling Software Tools Conclusions SOURCES OF THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR EFFICIENT USE IN PRODUCT DESIGN Introduction Overview of the Important Thermophysical Properties for Phase Equilibria Calculations Reliable Sources of Thermophysical Data Examples of Databases for Thermophysical Properties Special Case and Challenge: Data of Complex Solutions Examples of Databases with Properties of Electrolyte Solutions Properties of New Component Classes: Ionic Liquids and Hyperbranched Polymers CURRENT TRENDS IN IONIC LIQUID RESEARCH Introduction Ionic Liquids as Acido-basic Media Binary Mixtures of Ionic Liquids: Properties and Applications Nanoporous Materials from Ionothermal Synthesis Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions in Ionic Liquids Concluding Remarks GELLING OF PLANT BASED PROTEINS Introduction ? Overview of Plant Proteins in Industry Structure and Formation of Protein Gels Factors Determining Physical Properties of Protein Gels Evaluating Gelation of Proteins Gelation of Proteins Derived from Plants Protein Gels in Product Application Future Prospects and Challenges ENZYMATICALLY TEXTURIZED PLANT PROTEINS FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY Introduction Reactions Catalyzed by MTG Current Sources of MTG Need for Novel Sources of MTG Vegetable Proteins Suitable for Crosslinking with MTG Strategies to Modify and Improve Protein Sources for MTG Crosslinking Applications of MTG in Processing Food Products Containing Vegetable Protein Applications of MTG Crosslinked Leguminous Proteins in Food Models and Realistic Food Products Safety of MTG and Isopeptide Bonds in Crosslinked Plant Proteins Conclusions DESIGN OF SKIN CARE PRODUCTS Product Design Skin Care Emulsions Structure of a Skin Care Cream Essential Active Substances from a Medical Point of View Penetration into the Skin Targeted Product Design in the Course of Development Production of Skin Care Products Bottles for Cosmetic Creams Design of all Elements EMULSION GELS IN FOODS Introduction Food Emulsions Creating a Food Emulsion Applications of Gel-Like Type Emulsions Final Considerations INDEX