The past decade has witnessed tremendous progress in psychiatric neuroimaging research. Investigators have developed, in tandem with significant advances in imaging technology, innovative strategies for exploiting the awesome potential of these new tools. This volume brings you up to date on the latest developments by providing insight into the methodology of experimental design of the numerous neuroimaging articles being published in today's peer-reviewed journals. Revealing the remarkable wealth of neuroimaging's potential contributions to psychiatry, 49 distinguished contributors use accounts of their own research to illustrate the power of particular paradigmatic techniques. These techniques hold promise not only for delineating pathophysiology and advancing neuroscience, but also for yielding discoveries of direct clinical significance, such as diagnostic testing, predictors of treatment response, and new medications.
Focused specifically on applications in psychiatry, these chapters are uniquely organized around experimental paradigms rather than psychiatric disorders: * Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect and characterize subtle, easily overlooked abnormalities in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.* Testing specific hypotheses regarding the functional integrity of implicated neural systems within the brain as part of cognitive activation studies of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).* Assessing the roles of the amygdala and striatum in anxiety disorders, including masked stimuli and other task manipulation methods to assay nonconscious brain activity. * Investigating the neural correlates of psychiatric symptoms in anxiety disorders, using script-driven imagery and in vivo exposure to experimentally manipulate study conditions.* Capturing the often elusive symptoms of hallucinations and psychomotor tics using innovative imaging techniques.* Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate how the brain regulates mood.
Other fascinating topics include using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to discern the therapeutic mechanisms of psychotropic medications and enhance the development of new medications; integrating structural and functional imaging to treat major depression; using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to quantify brain concentrations of exogenous compounds; using MRI to visualize circuits implicated in developmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety, including ground-breaking studies of children; using functional MRI in animals and its applications in psychiatric research; and exploring the use of neuroimaging methods to investigate genetic contributions to normal cognitive function. Specialists and general clinicians alike will find much of interest in this definitive look at the exciting developments in neuroimaging today and how they can enhance our understanding and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This comprehensive text with its extensive illustrations and annotations will also prove a welcome addition to any course in the neurosciences.
Darin D. Dougherty, M.D., is an Instructor in Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Clinical Assistant at Massachusetts General Hospital, Director of Medical Education of the Massachusetts General Hospital Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Institute, Co-Director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Trichotillomania Clinic, and Visiting Scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He completed his residency in general psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital and is a graduate of the Clinical Investigator Training Program at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Scott L. Rauch, M.D., is Associate Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and Associate Chief of Psychiatry (for Neuroscience Research) at Massachusetts General Hospital, where he also serves as Director of Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research and Assistant Radiological Scientist in Neuroimaging. As a clinician at Massachusetts General Hospital, he provides consultation and patient care at the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Institute. Dr. Rauch has contributed over 150 publications to the scientific literature and currently serves on the editorial boards of four journals. His principal research interests include neuroimaging and the neurobiology of anxiety disorders.
ContributorsIntroductionAcknowledgmentsChapter 1. Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging studies: findings in schizophreniaChapter 2. Mapping cognitive functioning in psychiatric disordersChapter 3. Using neuroimaging to study implicit information processingChapter 4. Symptom provocation studies: the example of anxiety disordersChapter 5. Symptom capture: a strategy for pathophysiologic investigation in functional neuropsychiatric imagingChapter 6. New methods for understanding how the brain regulates mood: serial perfusion functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulationChapter 7. Neuroimaging studies of treatment response: the example of major depressionChapter 8. In vivo neuroreceptor imaging techniques in psychiatric drug developmentChapter 9. "Functional" neuroreceptor imaging: the example of studies of synaptic dopamine activity with single photon emission tomorgraphyChapter 10. In vivo neuroreceptor characterization: the example of [11C] flumazenil positron emission tomography in the investigation of anxiety disordersChapter 11. Integration of structural and functional imaging: examples in depression researchChapter 12. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in psychiatric illnessChapter 13. Using magnetic resonance imaging to visualize circuits implicated in developmental disorders: the examples of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderChapter 14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in animals: applications in psychiatric researchChapter 15. Toward a neurocognitive genetics: goals and issuesIndex
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