Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures is an original and timely contribution to a very active area of physics and materials science research. This book presents the theoretical and experimental phenomena of Raman spectroscopy, with specialized discussions on the physical fundamentals, new developments and main features in low-dimensional systems of Raman spectroscopy. In recent years physicists, materials scientists and chemists have devoted increasing attention to low-dimensional systems and as Raman spectroscopy can be used to study and analyse such materials as carbon nanotubes, quantum wells, silicon nanowires, etc., it is fast becoming one of the most powerful and sensitive experimental techniques to characterize the qualities of such nanostructures. Recent scientific and technological developments have resulted in the applications of Raman spectroscopy to expand. These developments are vital in providing information for a very broad field of applications: for example in microelectronics, biology, forensics and archaeology.
Thus, this book not only introduces these important new branches of Raman spectroscopy from both a theoretical and practical view point, but the resulting effects are fully explored and relevant representative models of Raman spectra are described in-depth with the inclusion of theoretical calculations, when appropriate.
Professor Shu-Lin Zhang, Professor of School of Physics, Peking University. Academic Experience: 1964-date: Joined the Department of Physics of Peking University, in where he has been engaged in fundamental research for 40 years. Since 1980 he has been interested in the research of Raman spectroscopy. 1986: The Visiting Associate Professor in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA. 2003: The Lecturer Scholar of Nobel Laureate C. N. Yang at theChineseUniversity ofHong Kong in 2003. Professional Activities and Awards: 1995-2001: Director of the Committee on Light Scattering of Chinese Physical Society(CPS); 1995-2003: Councilor of CPS; 2000-: ex officio member the International Steering Committee (ISC) of the International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy (ICORS); 2002-2004: Chair of ISC of (ICORS); 2002-Now: International Advisor of the Committee on Light Scattering of CPS; 2004: Research work "Raman spectral research of several low-dimensional materials" was awarded the second class of the China National Award on Nature Science.
Preface ix Acknowledgements xiii Part I Fundamentals of Raman Spectroscopy 1 1 Basic Knowledge of Raman Spectroscopy 3 1.1 Spectrum and Spectroscopy 3 1.2 Scattering and Raman Scattering 5 1.3 Fundamental Features of Raman Scattering Spectra 9 1.4 Discovery of the Raman Scattering Effects and Observation of the First Raman Spectrum 10 1.5 Historical Development of Raman Spectroscopy 13 References 16 2 Fundamental Theory of Light Scattering 19 2.1 Description of Scattering 20 2.2 Macroscopic Theory of Light Scattering 26 2.3 Microscopic Theory of Light Scattering 39 References 45 3 Experimental Foundation of Raman Spectroscopy 47 3.1 Generality of Raman Spectral Measurements 47 3.2 Experimental Apparatus 56 3.3 Main Performance Parameters of Raman Spectrometers 79 3.4 Experimental Measurements 83 3.5 Data Processing of Recorded Raman Spectra 88 3.6 A Typical Example of Vibration Raman Spectra Raman Spectrum of CCl4 94 3.7 Interference Spectrometer and Fourier Transform Optics 97 References 104 4 Introduction to Modern Raman Spectroscopy I-New Raman Spectroscopic Branch Classified Based on Spectral Features 105 4.1 Non-visible Excited Raman Spectroscopy 106 4.2 Resonant Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) 106 4.3 High-Order/Multiple-Phonon Raman Spectroscopy (MPRS) 110 4.4 Raman Spectroscopy under Extreme Conditions 114 4.5 Polarized Raman Spectroscopy (PRS) 115 4.6 Time-Resolved (Transient) Raman Spectroscopy (TRRS) 116 4.7 Space-Resolved Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and Raman Microscopy 118 4.8 Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) 119 4.9 Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy (NFRS) 121 4.10 Tip-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS) 130 4.11 Non-linear and Coherent Raman Spectroscopy (NLRS) 136 4.12 Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) 138 4.13 Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) 145 References 150 5 Introduction to Modern Raman Spectroscopy II-New Raman Spectroscopic Branch Classified Based on Applied Objects 153 5.1 Common Spectroscopic Basis Related to the Study and Application of Raman Spectroscopy 153 5.2 Chemistry Raman Spectroscopy 158 5.3 Condensed Matter Raman Spectroscopy 160 5.4 Biological and Medical Raman Spectroscopy 166 5.5 Geology and Mineralogy Raman Spectroscopy 175 5.6 Art and Archeology Raman Spectroscopy 177 5.7 Industry Raman Spectroscopy 178 5.8 Raman Spectroscopy in National Security and Judicature 181 References 182 Part II Study of Nanostructures by Raman Spectroscopy 185 6 General Knowledge of Nanostructures 187 6.1 Nanostructure, Characteristic Length, and Dimension 187 6.2 Nanomaterials 188 6.3 Properties of Nanostructures 190 6.4 Finite Size and Specific Surface 192 6.5 The Study of Nanostructure 196 References 197 7 Theoretical Fundamentals of Raman Scattering in Solids 199 7.1 General Knowledge of Lattice Dynamics 200 7.2 Microscopic Model of Lattice Dynamics 213 7.3 Macroscopic Model of Lattice Dynamics 222 7.4 Lattice Dynamics of Amorphous Matter 229 7.5 Raman Scattering Theories in Solids 230 References 246 8 Theoretical Fundamentals of Raman Scattering in Nanostructures 249 8.1 Superlattices 250 8.2 Nanostructure Materials 264 8.3 Micro-Crystal Models 283 8.4 Amorphous Feature and PDOS Expression of Nanostructure Raman Spectra 296 8.5 First-Principles/ab initio Calculation of Nanostructure Raman Spectra 298 References 306 9 Routine Raman Spectra of Nanostructures 309 9.1 Characteristic Raman Spectra of Semiconductor Superlattices 310 9.2 Characteristic Raman Spectra of Nanosilicon 318 9.3 Characteristic Raman Spectra of Nanocarbons 325 9.4 Characteristic Raman Spectra of Polar Nano-Semiconductors 337 9.5 Multiple-Phonon Raman Spectra 343 9.6 Anti-Stokes Raman Spectra 352 References 357 10 Raman Spectroscopy of Nanostructures with Exciting Laser Features 361 10.1 Raman Spectra with Changing of Exciting Light Wavelengths Resonant Raman Spectra 361 10.2 Raman Spectra with Exciting Laser Polarization 373 10.3 Raman Spectra with Exciting Laser Intensity 378 References 392 11 Raman Spectra with Samples of Nanostructures 395 11.1 Effects of Sample Sizes on Raman Spectra of Nanostructures 395 11.2 Effects of Sample Shapes on Raman Spectra in Nanostructures 409 11.3 Effects of Sample Component and Micro-structure on Raman Spectra in Nanostructures 413 References 417 12 Electron-Phonon Interactions in Raman Spectroscopy of Nanostructures 419 12.1 Abnormal Raman Spectral Features in Nanostructures 419 12.2 Origin of No FSE on Phonons 420 12.3 Fr ohlich Interaction in Nanostructures 423 12.4 Theoretical Raman Spectra of Non-polar and Polar Nano-Semiconductors 424 12.5 Amorphous Feature of Nanocrystal Raman Spectra of No FSE on Phonons and the Breaking of Translation Symmetry in Nano-Semiconductors 426 References 428 Appendices 429 Appendix I Electromagnetic Waves and Lasers 429 I.1 Electromagnetic Wavelength 429 I.2 Laser Types 430 I.3 Laser Lines and Ionic/Atomic Lines of Gas Lasers used Commonly in Raman Spectroscopy 432 Appendix II Standard Spectral Lines 438 II.1 Spectral Lines of Mercury Lamp in Visible Range 438 II.2 Standard Lines of Neon Spectral Lamp 439 Appendix III Raman Tensors 442 III.1 Raman Tensors and Symmetric Attributes 442 III.2 Applications of Raman Tensors 447 Appendix IV Constitution, Polarity, and Symmetry Structure of Crystals 452 IV.1 Constitution, Polarity, and Crystal Structure of Crystals 452 IV.2 Syngony and its Basic Vector, Bravais Lattice, and Point Group Symmetry 455 Appendix V Brillouin Zones, Vibration Modes, and Raman Spectra of Typical Ordinary and Semiconducting Crystals 458 V.1 Brillouin Zones and Symmetrical Points of Cubic System 458 V.2 Vibrational Modes and their Symmetries of Several Crystals 460 V.3 Structures, Symmetries, and Raman Spectra of Several Semiconducting Crystals 461 Appendix VI Physical Parameters, Constants, and Units 466 VI.1 Periodic Table of the Elements 466 VI.2 Electronic Structure of Atoms 467 VI.3 Common Physical Constant and the Performance Parameters of Optical Glass 470 References 472 Index 473