Reactive Power Compensation: A Practical Guide

Reactive Power Compensation: A Practical Guide

By: Wolfgang Just (author), Jurgen Schlabbach (author), Wolfgang Hofmann (author)Hardback

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Description

The comprehensive resource on reactive power compensation, presenting the design, application and operation of reactive power equipment and installations The area of reactive power compensation is gaining increasing importance worldwide. If suitably designed, it is capable of improving voltage quality significantly, meaning that losses in equipment and power systems are reduced, the permissible loading of equipment can be increased, and the over-all stability of system operation improved. Ultimately, energy use and CO2 emisson are reduced. This unique guide discusses the effects of reactive power on generation, transmission and distribution, and looks at the compensation of existing installations in detail. It outlines methods for determination of reactive power and answers the questions that arise when controlling it, for example, at parallel operation with generators. There is also a chapter devoted to installation, maintenance and disturbances. Key features include: * A concise overview as well as deep specific knowledge on the segment power factor regulation and network quality * Theory of reactive power compensation coupled with typical application examples such as car manufacturing, metal rolling and chemical works * Chapter summaries with charts explaining how to put the theory into practice * Coverage on the cost-saving aspects of this technology, including the efficient use of energy and the reduction of CO2 A practical guide for electrical engineers and technicians in utilities, this is also essential reading for maintenance engineers, designers, electrical contractors, manufacturing companies, and researchers, also those in industry and planning agencies. Insightful and clear, the book will also appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate electrical engineering students and professors.

About Author

Dr Wolfgang Hofmann, Consulting Engineer, Munich, Germany Dr Hofmann has been the leading expert in the development of reactive power controllers and energy multimeters for more than thirty years at Beluk GmbH. Having started his career as a high voltage electrician and studying electrical engineering at Oskar-von-Miller-Polytechnikum in Munich, he is now currently working as a consulting engineer in the field of power factor correction at Beluk GmbH. Professor J rgen Schlabbach, Bielefeld College of Further Education, Germany Professor Schlabbach attained a doctorate in electrotechnology from the Technical University Darmstadt in 1982. Since then he has been primarily active in the planning and project engineering of electric power nets at home and abroad, in an internationally active engineer enterprise. He currently lectures on electrical and renewable energy production at the Bielefeld College of further education, teaching specifically in the areas of training and distribution. Dr Wolfgang Just, Consultant Engineer, Germany Dr Just studied electrical engineering at the University of Applied Sciences FH Gelsenkirchen. He worked at City works Gelsenkirchen with the focus energy techniques and environmental protection group. He is now working as consulting engineer in the field of power factor correction. He is also a master electrician.

Contents

Foreword and Acknowledgements xiii 1 Basics of Reactive Power 1 1.1 Chapter Overview 1 1.2 Phasors and Vector Diagrams 1 1.3 Definition of Different Types of Power 4 1.4 Definition of Power for Non-Sinusoidal Currents and Voltages 6 1.5 Equivalent Mechanical Model for Inductance 9 1.6 Equivalent Mechanical Model for Capacitance 11 1.7 Ohmic and Reactive Current 12 1.8 Summary 13 References 13 2 Reactive Power Consumers 15 2.1 Chapter Overview 15 2.2 Reactive Energy Demand 15 2.3 Simplified Model: Series Reactive Power Consumer 16 2.4 Realistic Model: Mixed Parallel and Series Reactive Power 16 2.5 Reactive Power Demand of Consumers 17 2.5.1 Asynchronous Motors 17 2.5.2 Transformers 18 2.5.3 Control Gear (Ballast) for Gas Discharge Lamps 18 2.6 Summary 21 3 Effect of Reactive Power on Electricity Generation, Transmission and Distribution 23 3.1 Chapter Overview 23 3.2 Loading of Generators and Equipment 23 3.3 Power System Losses 24 3.4 Generators 27 3.5 Voltage Drop 28 3.5.1 General 28 3.5.2 Transferable Power of Lines and Voltage Drop 29 3.5.3 Transformer Voltage Drop 32 3.6 Available Power of Transformers 34 3.7 Summary 35 4 Reactive Power in Standard Energy Contracts 37 4.1 Chapter Overview 37 4.2 Introduction 37 4.3 Reactive Energy to be Considered in Standardized Contracts of Suppliers 38 4.3.1 Pricing Dependent on Consumed Reactive Energy (kvarh) 38 4.3.2 Pricing Dependent on Consumed Apparent Energy (kVAh) 40 4.4 Importance of Reactive Power in Determining the Costs of Connection 42 4.5 Summary 42 Reference 42 5 Methods for the Determination of Reactive Power and Power Factor 43 5.1 Chapter Overview 43 5.2 Methods 43 5.2.1 Determination of Power Factor in Single-Phase Grids 43 5.2.2 Direct Indication of Power Factor by Means of Brueger s Device 44 5.2.3 Determination of Power Factor in Three-Phase System 44 5.2.4 Determination of Power Factor Using Portable Measuring Equipment 46 5.2.5 Determination of Power (Factor) via Recorded Data 48 5.2.6 Determination of Power Factor by Means of an Active Energy Meter 48 5.2.7 Determination of Power Factor by Means of an Active and Reactive Energy Meter 49 5.2.8 Determination of Power Factor via the Energy Bill 50 5.3 Summary 51 6 Improvement of Power Factor 53 6.1 Chapter Overview 53 6.2 Basics of Reactive Power Compensation 53 6.3 Limitation of Reactive Power without Phase Shifting 55 6.4 Compensation of Reactive Power by Rotational Phase-Shifting Machines 55 6.5 Compensation of Reactive Power by Means of Capacitors 56 6.6 Summary 58 7 Design, Arrangement and Power of Capacitors 61 7.1 Chapter Overview 61 7.2 Basics of Capacitors 61 7.3 Reactive Power of Capacitors 64 7.4 Different Technologies in Manufacturing Capacitors 65 7.4.1 Capacitors with Paper Insulation 65 7.4.2 Capacitors with Metallized Paper (MP Capacitor) 65 7.4.3 Capacitors with Metallized Plastic Foils 66 7.5 Arrangements and Reactive Power of Capacitors 66 7.5.1 Capacitors Connected in Parallel 67 7.5.2 Capacitors Connected in Series 67 7.5.3 Star and Delta Connection of Power Capacitors 68 7.6 Design of MV Capacitors 69 7.7 Long-Term Stability and Ageing of Capacitor Installations 69 7.7.1 General 69 7.7.2 Influence of Operating Voltage 70 7.7.3 Ageing in the Case of Detuned Capacitors 72 7.7.4 Ageing due to Switching Operations 73 7.8 Summary 73 References 73 8 Determination of Required Power of Capacitors 75 8.1 Chapter Overview 75 8.2 Basics of Calculation 75 8.3 Determination of Compensation at New Projected Plants 79 8.4 Summary 85 Reference 85 9 Types of Reactive Power Compensation 87 9.1 Chapter Overview 87 9.2 Single-Type Compensation 87 9.2.1 Single-Type Compensation in Asynchronous Motors 88 9.2.2 Single-Type Compensation of Transformers 97 9.2.3 Single-Type Compensation of Reactive Power for Welding Transformers 99 9.2.4 Single-Type Compensation of Fluorescent Lamps 103 9.3 Bulk-Type Compensation 108 9.4 Central-Type Compensation 111 9.5 Mixed Compensation 112 9.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Compensations 113 9.7 Summary 115 Reference 115 10 Compensation of Existing Installations 117 10.1 Chapter Overview 117 10.2 Methods of Determining the Reactive Power for Extension 117 10.3 Calculation of the Extension Unit by Means of Energy Invoices 118 10.4 Summary 121 11 Control of Reactive Power 123 11.1 Chapter Overview 123 11.2 General 123 11.2.1 Reactive Power Compensation Units 124 11.3 Control of Reactive Power by Automatic Reactive Power Controllers 124 11.3.1 General 124 11.3.2 Number of Steps and Reactive Power of the Capacitor Steps 125 11.3.3 Threshold Level C/k Value 131 11.3.4 Reverse Control Scheme (cos d Line) 133 11.3.5 Automatic Reactive Power Control 135 11.3.6 No-Volt Release Function 137 11.4 How to Wire a Power Factor Relay 137 11.5 Reactive Power Control by Mixed Measurement 138 11.6 Reactive Power Control with Multiple Feed-ins 140 11.6.1 Measuring by Means of Summation Current Transformer 140 11.6.2 Parallel Operation of Compensation Banks for Each Incoming Supply 142 11.7 Performances of Automatic Compensation Banks 144 11.8 Summary 146 12 Discharging Devices for Power Capacitors 147 12.1 Chapter Overview 147 12.2 Basis at LV Applications 147 12.2.1 Rapid Discharging with Additional Resistances Switched in 150 12.2.2 Discharging Capacitors by Means of Reactors 150 12.3 Discharging Devices in MV Capacitors 152 12.3.1 MV Capacitors to be Discharged by Resistances 152 12.3.2 MV Capacitors to be Discharged by Reactors 154 12.4 Calculation of the Electric Charge to be Stored on an MV Capacitor 154 12.5 Summary 156 13 Protection of Capacitors and Compensations 157 13.1 Chapter Overview 157 13.2 Protection against Overcurrent and Short Circuit 157 13.3 Overvoltage Protection 158 13.4 Protection against Overtemperatures 158 13.5 Protection against Internal Faults 158 13.5.1 Protection against Voltage Flashover 159 13.5.2 Self-healing Technology 159 13.5.3 Protection against Overheating and Internal Overpressure 159 13.6 Protection by Balance Observation at Single-Phase MV Capacitors 162 13.7 Summary 163 Reference 163 14 Switching of Capacitors 165 14.1 Chapter Overview 165 14.2 General 165 14.3 Selection of Switchgear 167 14.3.1 Air Contactors 168 14.3.2 Circuit Breakers 169 14.3.3 Switch Fuses and Magnetic Trips 169 14.4 Switching by Semiconductors (Thyristor Modules) 169 14.4.1 General 169 14.4.2 Static Contactors for Switching Capacitors up to 415 V 171 14.4.3 Static Contactors for Switching Capacitors of Rated Voltage Higher than 500 V 173 14.4.4 Power Factor Relays for Static Contactors 173 14.4.5 Dynamic Reactive Power Compensation (Ready to Install) 174 14.5 Summary 175 Reference 175 15 Installation, Disturbances and Maintenance 177 15.1 Chapter Overview 177 15.2 Installation of Automatically Controlled Compensation Banks 177 15.3 Automatic Compensation Banks: Setting into Operation 178 15.3.1 Selection of Current Transformer (CT) and Determination of the CT Cable 178 15.3.2 Preset Switching Time Delay per Capacitor Step 183 15.4 Disturbances and How to Solve Them 184 15.5 Working and Maintenance 185 15.6 Summary 187 References 187 16 Reactive Power Compensation in Electrical Plants with Generators 189 16.1 Chapter Overview 189 16.2 General 189 16.3 Automatic Control of Reactive Power within Four Quadrants 190 16.3.1 Technical Considerations 190 16.3.2 Bargaining Considerations 192 16.4 Summary 193 References 194 17 Effects of Perturbation Considering Especially the Impact of Harmonics on Power Factor Correction Capacitors 195 17.1 Chapter Overview 195 17.2 Perturbations and Improved Power Quality for Business Customers 196 17.3 Measuring and Analysis 198 17.4 Summary 203 References 204 18 Resonances in Electrical Power Systems 205 18.1 Chapter Overview 205 18.2 Parallel Resonance Circuit 205 18.3 Series Resonance Circuit 208 18.4 Typical Resonances in Power Systems 208 18.4.1 Resonance due to Reactive Power Compensation in 6 kV System 208 18.4.2 Parallel Resonance in a 30 kV Industrial System 210 18.4.3 Impedance in Urban 10 kV System 212 18.5 Summary 212 Reference 212 19 Reactor-Protected Capacitors and Filter Circuits 213 19.1 Chapter Overview 213 19.2 Effect of Reactor-Protected Systems and System Configuration 214 19.2.1 Effect of Reactor-Protected Systems 214 19.2.2 System Configuration of Reactor-Protected Capacitor Banks 217 19.3 Notes on the Selection of Reactors 220 19.4 Influence of the Reactor Rate on the Capacitor s Lifetime 222 19.5 Filter Effect with Detuned Filters 223 19.6 Filter Circuits 225 19.6.1 General 225 19.6.2 Active Filters 227 19.6.3 Passive Filters 229 19.6.4 Comparison of Active and Passive Filters 233 19.7 Neutral Line Harmonic Filtering 233 19.7.1 General 233 19.7.2 Special Features of the Third Harmonic 234 19.7.3 Network Relief by the Neutral Line Harmonic Filter 235 19.8 Summary 238 References 239 20 Dynamic Reactive Power Compensation Systems 241 20.1 Chapter Overview 241 20.1.1 Improvement of Power Quality via Dynamic Reactive Power Compensation Systems 242 20.2 Motor Startup Compensation 245 20.3 Flicker Compensation 245 20.4 Evaluation of Power Factor Correction Solutions as Seen by the Distribution System Operator (Power Utility) 251 20.5 Summary 252 References 252 21 Compensation Effects at Rectifiers 253 21.1 Chapter Overview 253 21.1.1 General 253 21.2 Compensation Bank at a Six-Pulse Rectifier 254 21.2.1 Time Courses of Voltage and Current at a Three-Phase Bridge-Connected Rectifier 256 21.2.2 How Compensation Banks Affect Three-Phase Bridge-Connected Rectifiers 257 21.3 Characteristic Behaviour of Reactive Power Controllers at Rectifiers 260 21.4 Summary 261 References 261 22 Environmental and Climate Protection Using Capacitors 263 22.1 Chapter Overview 263 22.2 PCB-Filled Capacitors 263 22.3 Climate Change and Energy Efficiency through Power Factor Correction 264 22.4 Summary 267 References 267 Symbols and Abbreviations 269 Index 273

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470977187
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 304
  • ID: 9780470977187
  • weight: 610
  • ISBN10: 0470977183

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