Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is the analytical tool of choice for characterizing thin films during growth by molecular beam epitaxy, since it is very sensitive to surface structure and morphology. This book serves as an introduction to RHEED for beginners and describes detailed experimental and theoretical treatments for experts, explaining how to analyze RHEED patterns. For beginners the principles of electron diffraction are explained and many examples of the interpretation of RHEED patterns are described. The second part of the book contains detailed descriptions of RHEED theory. The third part applies RHEED to the determination of surface structures, gives detailed descriptions of the effects of disorder, and critically reviews the mechanisms contributing to RHEED intensity oscillations. This unified and coherent account will appeal to both graduate students and researchers in the study of molecular beam epitaxial growth.
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Historical survey; 3. Instrumentation; 4. Wave properties of electrons; 5. The diffraction conditions; 6. Geometrical features of the patterns; 7. Kikuchi and resonance patterns; 8. Real diffraction patterns; 9. Electron scattering by atoms; 10. Kinematic electron diffraction; 11. Fourier components of the crystal potential; 12. Dynamical theory: transfer matrix method; 13. Dynamical theory: embedded R-matrix method; 14. Dynamical theory: integral method; 15. Structural analysis of crystal surfaces; 16. Inelastic scattering in a crystal; 17. Weakly disordered surfaces; 18. Strongly disordered surfaces; 19. RHEED intensity oscillations; Appendix A. Fourier representations; Appendix B. Green's function; Appendix C. Kirchhoff's diffraction theory; Appendix D. A simpler Eigenvalue problem; Appendix E. Waller and Hartree equation; Appendix F. Optimization of dynamical calculation; Appendix G. Scattering factor; References; Index