This three-volume set thoroughly describes, synthesizes and analyzes the results of the four-year Integrated Research Project CIRCE - Climate Change and Impact Research: Mediterranean Environment, funded by the EU 6th Framework Programme. Conducted under the auspices of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Rome, Italy, CIRCE it is designed to predict and to quantify the physical impacts of climate change in the Mediterranean, and to assess the most influential consequences for the region's population.
PART I: Air, Sea and Precipitation.- Introduction.- 1. Past and Current Climate Changes in the Mediterranean Region.- 2. Future Climate Projections.- 3. Mechanisms of Climate Variability, Air Quality and Impacts of Atmospheric Constituents in the Mediterranean Region.- 4. Detection and Attribution.- Summary and Major Findings.- PART II: Water.- Introduction.- 5. The Hydrological Cycle of the Mediterranean.- 6. Impacts of Climate Change on Freshwater Bodies: Quantitative Aspects.- 7. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Quality.- Summary and Major Findings.- Index.- PART III: Agriculture, Forests and Ecosystem Services.- Introduction.- 1. Vulnerability of Ecosystem Services in the Mediterranean Region to Climate Changes in Combination with Other Pressures.- 2. Impact of Climate Variability and Extremes on the Carbon Cycle of the Mediterranean Region.- 3. Climate Change Impacts on Typical Mediterranean Crops and Evaluation of Adaptation Strategies to Cope With.- 4. Climate Change Impacts on Forests and Forest Products in the Mediterranean Area.- 5. Effects of Climate and Extreme Events on Wildfire Regime and Their Ecological Impacts.- 6. Climate Induced Effects on Livestock Population and Productivity in the Mediterranean Area.- Summary and Major Findings.- PART IV: People.- Introduction.- 7. Integrated Socio-Economic Assessment (The Economic Point of View) .- 8. Water and People: Assessing Policy Priorities for Climate Change Adaptation in the Mediterranean.- 9. Adaptation Strategies for the Mediterranean.- 10. Health.- 11. Energy Demand and GHG Mitigation Options.- 12. Mediterranean Tourism and Climate Change: Identifying Future Demand and Assessing Destinations' Vulnerability.- 13. International Retirement Migration from Northern Europe to the Mediterranean: New Results on the Role of Climate With a Possible Application to Climate Change.- 14. Green Growth in the Mediterranean.- Summary and Major Findings.- Index.- PART V: Case Studies.- Introduction.- 1. Stakeholders.- 2. Physical and Socio-Economic Indicators.- 3. Climate Impact Assessments.- 4. Integration of the Climate Impact Assessments With Future Projections.- 5. Synthesis and the Assessment of Adaptation Measures.- Executive Summary.- Appendix.- Index.