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This text provides comprehensive coverage of research methods and statistics in a readable and student-friendly format. A wide variety of methodologies-including descriptive, experimental and quasi-experimental research, historical studies, qualitative methods, and single subject designs-are covered. A complete range of research tools as well as descriptive and inferential statistics are also included, making this text the definitive resource for introductory research courses. Research in Education is divided into three parts: Part I, "Introduction to Educational Research," focuses on the purpose of research, hypotheses, ethics in research, developing a research problem, and writing proposals and reports; Part II, "Research Methods," is unique in that it integrates chapters on qualitative research methods, historical research, and single-subject methods with the more typical chapters on experimental methods; and Part III, "Data Analysis," includes both descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as examples of analyses using a computer.
Each chapter concludes with "Summary," "Exercises" and "References." Preface I. INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: DEFINITIONS, RESEARCH PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS, AND REPORT WRITING. 1. The Meaning of Research. Why Should I Study Research? The Search for Knowledge Science The Role of Theory Operational Definitions of Variables The Hypothesis The Research Hypothesis The Null Hypothesis (Ho) Populations Sampling Randomness The Simple Random Sample Random Numbers The Systematic Sample The Stratified Random Sample The Area or Cluster Sample Nonprobability Samples Sample Size Purposes of Research Fundamental or Basic Research Applied Research Action Research Assessment, Evaluation, and Descriptive Research Types of Educational Research 2. Selecting a Problem and Preparing a Research Proposal. The Academic Research Problem Levels of Research Projects Sources of Problems Evaluating the Problem Using the Library Finding Related Literature References and Bibliography Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials The Research Proposal The First Research Project Submitting a Research Proposal to a Funding Agency Thesis Proposal Ethics in Human Experimentation History of Research Ethics Regulations From Regulations to Practice. 3. The Research Report. Style Manuals Format of the Research Report Main Body of the Report References and Appendices The Thesis or Dissertation Style of Writing Reference Form Pagination Tables Figures The Line Graph The Bar Graph or Chart The Circle, Pie, or Sector Chart Maps Organization Charts Evaluating a Research Report II. RESEARCH METHODS. 4. Historical Research. Purpose of Histroical Reseach on American Education History and Science Historical Generalization The Historical Hypothesis Hypotheses in Educational Historical Research Difficulties Encountered in Historical Research Sources of Data Primary Sources of Data Primary Sources of Educational Data Secondary Sources of Data Historical Criticism External Criticism Internal Criticism Examples of Topics for Educational Historical Study Writing the Historical Report 5. Descriptive Studies: Assessment, Evaluation, and Research. Assessment Studies The Survey Social Surveys Public Opinion Surveys National Center for Education Statistics International Assessment Activity Analysis Trend Studies Evaluation Studies School Surveys Program Evaluation Assessment and Evaluation in Problem Solving Descriptive Research Causal Comparative Research Correlational Research Follow-up Research Other Descriptive Research Replication and Secondary Analysis The Post Hoc Fallacy 6. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research. Early Experimentation Experimental and Control Groups Variables Independent and Dependent Variables Confounding Variables Controlling Extraneous Variables Experimental Validity Threats to Internal Experimental Validity Threats to External Experimental Validity Experimental Design Pre-experimental Designs True Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Factorial Designs 7. Single-Subject Experimental Research. General Procedures Repeated Measurement Baselines Manipulating Variables Length of Phases Transfer of Training and Response Maintenance Assessment Target Behavior Data Collection Strategies Basic Designs A-B-A-B Designs Multiple Baseline Designs Other Designs Evaluating Data 8. Qualitative Research. A Qualitative Research Model. Themes of Qualitative Research Research Questions Theoretical Traditions Research Strategies Document or Content Analysis The Case Study Ethnographic Studies Data Collection Techniques Observations Interviews Review of Documents Other Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Data Analysis and Interpretation Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research 9. Methods and Tools of Research. Reliability and Validity of Research Tools Quantitative Studies Qualitative Studies Psychological and Educational Tests and Inventories Qualities of a Good Test and Inventory Validity Reliability Economy Interest Types of Tests and Inventories Achievement Tests Aptitude Tests Interest Inventories Personality Inventories Projective Devices Observation Validity and Reliability of Observation Recording Observations Systematizing Data Collection Characteristics of Good Observation Inquiry Forms: The Questionnaire Closed Form The Open Form Improving Questionnaire Items Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire Preparing and Administering the Questionnaire A Sample Questionnaire Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires Inquiry Forms: The Opinionnaire Thurstone Technique Likert Method Semantic Differential The Interview Validity and Reliability of the Interview Q Methodology Social Scaling Sociometry Scoring Sociometric Choices The Sociogram "Guess-who" Technique Social-distance Scale Organization of Data Collection Outside Criteria for Comparison Limitations and Sources of Error III. DATA ANALYSIS. 10. Descriptive Data Analysis. What Is Statistics? Parametric and Nonparametric Data Descriptive and Inferential Analysis The Organization of Data Grouped Data Distributions Statistical Measures Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Spread or Dispersion Normal Distribution Nonnormal Distributions Interpreting the Normal Probability Distribution Practical Applications of the Normal Curve Measures of Relative Position: Standard Scores The Z Score (Z) The T Score (T) The College Board Score (ZCb). Stanines Percentile Rank. Measures of Relationship Pearson's Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r) Rank Order Correlation (r) Phi Correlation Coefficient (f) Interpretation of a Correlation Coefficient Outliers Misinterpretation of the Coefficient of Correlation Prediction Standard Error of Estimate A Note of Caution 11. Inferential Data Analysis. Statistical Inference The Central Limit Theorem Parametric Tests Testing Statistical Significance The Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Independent Groups The Null Hypothesis (Ho) The Level of Significance Decision Making Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests of Significance Degrees of Freedom A One-Sample Z Test Student's Distribution (t) Significance of the Difference between Two Small Sample Independent Means Homogeneity of Variances Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Matched or correlated Groups (Nonindependent Samples) Statistical Significance of a Coefficient of correlation Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Partial Correlation Multiple Regression and Correlation Nonparametric Tests The Chi Square Test (c2) The Mann-Whitney Test Outliers and Missing Data 12. Computer Data Analysis. The Computer Data Organization Computer Analysis of Data Descriptive Statistics Graphs Multiple Regression ANOVA Results from Analyses of Appendix B Data Statistics on the World Wide Web Qualitative Analyses Using Computer Software Appendix A: Statistical Formulas and Symbols. Appendix B: Sample Data. Appendix C: Percentage of Area Lying Between the Mean and Successive Standard Deviation Units Under the Normal Curve. Appendix D: Critical Values for Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation (r). Appendix E: Critical Values of Student's Distribution (t). Appendix F: Abridged Table of Critical Values for Chi Square. Appendix G: Critical Values of the F Distribution. Appendix H: Research Report Evaluation. Appendix I: Answers to Statistics Exercises.
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- ID: 9781292041971
Pearson New International Edition
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