The use of force and coercion to settle disputes between nations is a central problem of our time. Martin Patchen considers the circumstances that lead nations to use coercive means in disputes with other nations and also examines the effectiveness of other means of resolving international disputes. Patchen examines conflict and cooperation as general social processes and builds on previous work to present an overall theoretical framework that encompasses the conflict situation, perceptions of the adversary, decision-making, bargaining, and interaction and influence sequences.
List of Tables and Figures ix Preface xi I. Overall Perspective 1. Disputes Between Nations: An Analytic Framework 1 II. The Situation and Making Choices 2. The Situation 28 3. Perceptions 60 4. Making Decisions 95 5. When Are Coercive Versus Conciliatory Tactics Used? 123 III. Alternative Strategies and Their Effectiveness 6. Threat and Deterrence 169 7. Arms Buildup: Deterrent or Provocation? 195 8. The Use of Coercion 230 9. The Use of Positive Incentives 261 10. Strategies That Mix Conciliation and Coercion 275 11. Settling Disputes 294 IV. Conclusion 12. Summary and Conclusions 319 Notes 343 References 349 Index 363