Civil wars, genocides, natural disasters and other emergencies multiplied in the 1990s, and not just in the South, but in the Balkans and the former Soviet bloc. This book examines how to respond to the fundamental difficulties thrown up by these humanitarian crises. What kind of aid, in particular, should be brought in when the situation on the ground mixes up emergency relief with the longer-term process of development? The book includes many different voices and embodies an open-ended debate about the whole diverse process of international aid. The experiences and lessons it contains are relevant to all those playing a part in, or wishing to understand, the practice and dilemmas of humanitarian aid in the 1990s.
Foreword Luc Paunier, President, Geneva Foundation Introduction: Francois Grunewald, President, Groupe URD Part 1. Towards a New Analysis of Crises Compiled by Bernard Husson and Claire Pirotte 1. Observations on Crises Bernard Husson, Andre Marty and Claire Pirotte 2. Box: Development is Not Peace Francois Grunewald 3. The Pattern of Conflicts since 1945 Jean-Christophe Ruffin 4. Development in the Face of Crisis Christian Fusillier 5. The Crisis of International Aid Mark Duffield 6. Who Determines the Objectives? Pascal Vincent 7. A Better Understanding of the Economic Impact of War Francois Grunewald 8. Humanitarian Aid cannot be Reduced to ?Trucking? Jean-Baptiste Richardier 9. The Humanitarian Impasse Pierre Laurent 10. Keeping Sight of Our Intentions An interview with Philippe Biberson by Claire Pirotte Part 2: Combining Skills Compiled by Bruno Rebelle 11. Box: Rehabilitation of North Mali: Variations and Constants since the 1970s Andre Marty 12. Box: Remaining Operational during Crises ACORD 13. Box: Rehabilitation in Cambodia: Uncertain Beginnings Herve Bernard 14. Box: BOKEO: When the Schedule becomes a Constraint Francois Grunewald 15. Box: From Emergency Budgets to Development Funding: The Assessment of a Difficult Transition Claude Simonot 16. Box: And What if the Problem were on our side? Genevieve Guillou 17. Box: Complex Reconstruction in Bosnia Richard Pinder 18. Political Constraints Pierre Laurent 19. Box: Constraints, Strategies and Policies ACORD Part 3. Towards a New Conception of Outside Intervention in Crisis Situations Compiled by Francois Grunewald and Marc Rodriguez 20. Renewing the Modalities of Intervention in Crisis Situations Francois Grunewald 22. Strengthening Survival Strategies, the Key to Intervention Francois Grunewald 23. The Necessity and Specificity of a Follow-up Monitoring during a Crisis Francois Grunewald 24. Box: Follow-up Monitoring ACORD 25. Partnership: An Operational Attitude and a Philosophy Francoise Grunewald and Marc Rodriquez 26. The Choice of Partners: The Naive and the Ideologists Need Not Apply Francois Grunewald 27. Box: A Project based on Partnership in an Emergency Situation: Eastern Kasai, Zaire Marc Rodriguez and Claire Pirotte 28. Box: Partnership and Cholera Philippe Le Borgne and Valerie Belchior-Bellino 29. Box: Finding the Right Partner: The Same Problem for Northern and Southern NGOs Elyane Comaty-Mitri and Berengere Cornet-Vernay 30. Box: The ICRC and the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies: A Very Special Relationship Carlo von Flue 31. Strengthening the Actors, or Helping Them to Strengthen Themselves 32. Social Differentiation between Men and Women in Humanitarian Interventions Judy El Bushra 33. Box: The Specific Problems of Unaccompanied Women in Displaced Persons or Refugee Camps Interview with Annette Correze by Claire Pirotte 34. Box: Finding the Last Anti-Personnel Mine: An Emergency for Long-term Development Bill Howell 35. Using the Money in CRisis Situations Francois Grunewald 36. Box: Emergency Aid for Income Generation ACORD 37. Box: Economic Solutions: A Difficult Concept for Some Emergency Operators Marc Rodriguez Part 4: Open Debates 38. Box: On Trends and Their Effects Francois Grunewald 39. Different Aspects of Crisis Prevention Bernard Husson, Andre Marty and Claire Pirotte 40. Better Utilization of Early Warning Systems Francois Grunewald 41. Box: Burundi: When Material Aid is Not Enough Jean-Eudes Beuret 42. Ethics and Deontology 43. Humanitarian Assistance Is a Right Pierre Laurent 44. Assistance and Protection: Implementing International Humanitarian Law An interview with Carlos von Flue by Claire Pirotte 45. Neutrality and Impartiality: Fundamental Rights Carlos von Flue 46. Neutrality and Impartiality Judy El Bushra 47. Box: The Rwandan Crisis: Impartiality, Reconciliation and Justice ACORD 48. Box: Dealing with Inconsistencies Yannick Lassica 49. The Relations of NGOs with Public Authorities and Guerilla Movements during Transition Phases 50. Relations with Public Authorities concerning Afghanistan Philippe Truze 51. Box: Peru: Working in Areas Controlled by the Shining Path Jean-Jacques Boutrou 52. Contributing to the Management of a Transition Period Between Conflicts and Prospects of Decentralisation in North Mali Andre Marty 53. Building New Dynamics: The Example of North Mali Bernard Husson 54. Relations between Humanitarians and the Military Philippe Truze 55. What Role for the Military in Rehabilitation? Veronique de Geoffroy Annexes 1. An Analysis of Food Situations in a Crisis Context: East Kasai, Zaire Marc Rodriguez 2. The European Union and Support for Rehabilitation Xavier Ortega and Sylvie Mantrant 3. A History of the Partnership between the ICRC and the National Societies of Red Cross and Red Crescent Carlo von Flue 4. The Fundamental Principles of the In