Reverse Osmosis: Industrial Processes and Applications (2nd Edition)

Reverse Osmosis: Industrial Processes and Applications (2nd Edition)

By: Jane Kucera (author)Hardback

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Description

This new edition of the bestselling Reverse Osmosis isthe most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the process ofreverse osmosis in industrial applications, a technology that isbecoming increasingly more important as more and more companieschoose to "go green." This book covers all of theprocesses and equipment necessary to design, operate, andtroubleshoot reverse osmosis systems, from the fundamentalprinciples of reverse osmosis technology and membranes to the muchmore advanced engineering principles necessary for designing areverse osmosis system. The second edition is an enhanced version of the original bestseller. Each chapter has been reviewed and updated. Revised features include more detail on various pretreatmenttechniques such as greensand and pyrolusite pretreatmentmedia. The design projection chapter has been edited toinclude up-to-date information on current projectionprograms. A new section on microbial fouling controlfeaturing chlorine and alternative techniques is included toaddress the needs of most RO systems. Also, a discussion onforward osmosis is added as an alternative and/or companiontechnology to reverse osmosis for water treatment. The secondedition includes all updated, basic, in-depth information fordesign, operation, and optimization of reverse osmosissystems. Earlier chapters cover the basic principles, the history ofreverse osmosis, basic terms and definitions, and essentialequipment. The book then goes into pretreatment processes andsystem design, then, finally, operations and troubleshooting. The author includes a section on the impact of other membranetechnologies and even includes a "Frequently AskedQuestions" chapter.

About Author

Jane Kucera is a chemical engineer with 25 years' experience in the area of membrane technology. Jane began her work with membranes in the Seawater Laboratory at UCLA where she received her Master of Chemical Engineering degree in 1984. She worked for 7 years with Bend Research, where she worked on water re-use systems for the International Space Station.? Ms. Kucera's subsequent career path is a "who's who" of the world's most respected companies working in water treatment, including GE and Siemens. She joined the Nalco Company in 2003, where she is a senior engineer with a variety of responsibilities. She has approximately 40 publications to her credit, including journal articles, presentations, and book chapters.

Contents

Preface xv Acknowledgements for the First Edition xvii Acknowledgements for the Second Edition xix Part 1: Fundamentals 1 Introduction and History of Development 3 1.1 Introduction 3 References 16 2 Reverse Osmosis Principles 19 2.1 Osmosis 19 2.2 Reverse Osmosis 21 2.3 Dead-End Filtration 22 2.4 Cross-Flow Filtration 23 3 Basic Terms and Definitions 25 3.1 Reverse Osmosis System Flow Rating 25 3.2 Recovery 26 3.3 Rejection 28 3.4 Flux 31 3.5 Concentration Polarization 33 3.6 Beta 34 3.7 Fouling 35 3.8 Scaling 38 3.9 Silt Density Index 40 3.10 Modified Fouling Index 43 3.11 Langelier Saturation Index 46 References 47 4 Membranes 49 4.1 Transport Models 50 4.2 Membrane Materials 54 4.3 Membrane Modules 65 4.4 Commercially-Available Membranes 83 References 91 5 Basic Flow Patterns 95 5.1 Arrays 95 5.2 Recycle 100 5.3 Double Pass 101 5.4 Multiple Trains 103 6 Reverse Osmosis Skids 105 6.1 Cartridge Filters 106 6.2 Reverse Osmosis Feed Pumps 109 6.3 Pressure Vessels 116 6.4 Manifolding Materials of Construction 123 6.5 Instrumentation 124 6.6 Controls 125 6.7 Data Acquisition and Management 127 6.8 Reverse Osmosis Skid 129 6.9 Auxiliary Equipment 129 6.10 Other Design Considerations 130 References 131 Part 2: Pretreatment 7 Water Quality Guidelines 135 7.1 Suspended Solids 135 7.2 Microbes 137 7.3 Organics 139 7.4 Color 139 7.5 Metals 140 7.6 Hydrogen Sulfide 141 7.7 Silica 145 7.8 Calcium Carbonate 150 7.9 Trace Metals Barium and Strontium 151 7.10 Chlorine 152 7.11 Calcium 153 7.12 Exposure to Other Chemicals 155 References 155 8 Techniques and Technologies 157 8.1 Mechanical Pretreatment 159 8.2 Chemical Pretreatment 187 8.3 Combination Mechanical Plus Chemical Pretreatment Lime Softening 201 8.4 Sequencing of Pretreatment Technologies 204 8.5 Membrane Biofouling and Alternative Disinfectants 206 References 230 Part 3: System Design 9 Design Considerations 237 9.1 Feed Water Quality 238 9.2 Temperature 242 9.3 Pressure 244 9.4 Feed Water Flow 245 9.5 Concentrate Flow 246 9.6 Beta 246 9.7 Recovery 249 9.8 pH 251 9.9 Flux 253 References 253 10 RO Design and Design Software 255 10.1 Dow WAVE Water Application Value Engine 258 10.2 Toray DS2 275 10.3 Hydranautics IMS Design 281 References 282 Part 4: Operations 11 On-Line Operations 285 11.1 Reverse Osmosis Performance Monitoring 285 11.2 Data Collection 286 11.3 Data Analysis and Normalization 287 11.4 Preventive Maintenance 301 References 303 12 Performance Degradation 305 12.1 Normalized Permeate Flow 305 12.2 Normalized Salt Rejection 308 12.3 Pressure Drop 310 References 311 13 Off -Line Operations 313 13.1 System Flush 313 13.2 Membrane Cleaning 316 13.3 Membrane Lay-Up 326 References 328 Part 5: Troubleshooting 14 Troubleshooting 331 14.1 Mechanical Evaluation 333 14.2 General Performance Issues 334 14.3 System Design and Performance Projections 334 14.4 Data Assessment 336 14.5 Water Sampling 339 14.6 Membrane Integrity Testing 339 14.7 Profiling and Probing 340 14.8 Membrane Autopsy 342 References 352 Part 6: System Engineering 15 Issues Concerning System Engineering 355 15.1 Sodium Water Softening 355 15.2 Reverse Osmosis Sizing and Capacity 364 15.3 Membrane Cleaning: On-Site versus Off -Site 365 15.4 Reverse Osmosis Reject Disposal Options 367 References 371 16 Impact of Other Membrane Technologies 373 16.1 Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 373 16.2 Nanofiltration 388 16.3 Forward Osmosis 392 16.4 Continuous Electrodeionization 398 16.5 HERO Process 408 References 413 Part 7: Frequently Asked Questions 17 Frequently Asked Questions 419 17.1 General 419 17.2 Operational 421 17.3 Equipment 433 References 435 Index 437

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118639740
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 472
  • ID: 9781118639740
  • weight: 854
  • ISBN10: 111863974X
  • edition: 2nd Edition

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

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