After the unification of physical theories in a grand unified theory, the theories of evolution began to unify not only all social sciences but also the natural with the social sciences. This text provides an analysis of the new trends which lead into the 21st century, together with a critique of the received view. Presented here are 16 papers, two of which written by Nobel laureates. The first part, "Characteristic Features in Economic Science", criticizes the present status of traditional economic theories. "Discovery, Creativity, Cognition, and Computation: Basic Structure", the second part, opens up perspectives for the role of the new dynamic structures for the modern social sciences and philosophy. Part III, "Towards a Science of Man and Society: Philosophical and Methodological Foundations", offers the philosophical consequences that are triggered by the breakthrough of modern ideas.