Based on real-life experiences, Risk Management in Outdoor and Adventure Programs: Scenarios of Accidents, Incidents, and Misadventures offers both students and professionals practice in applying risk management strategies to situations encountered in outdoor and adventure programs. Written by Aram Attarian, an experienced professor and professional in outdoor and adventure recreation, Risk Management in Outdoor and Adventure Programs presents a systematic model for determining why an incident happened and what could be done to prevent a repeat occurrence. More than 50 real-life scenarios represent various situations encountered in outdoor and adventure programming, such as peanut allergies, bridge jumping, stalking by mountain lions, and lightning strikes. These scenarios offer guidance in analyzing hazardous situations and applying appropriate strategies in safety and risk management. Each scenario is followed by questions that can guide discussion or promote research in concepts or policies that are important to outdoor and adventure programming. Accidents and mishaps are a reality in outdoor and adventure programs. Applying risk management strategies to the scenarios in Risk Management in Outdoor and Adventure Programs gives outdoor adventure leaders increased knowledge of the inherent risks of their profession as well as their legal responsibilities in programming, leadership, and management. This text can help leaders and their participants enjoy safe and successful adventures in the great outdoors.
Aram Attarian, PhD, is an associate professor in the department of parks, recreation, and tourism management at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. He is the owner of the risk management consultation firm Adventureprogrammanagement.com and serves as the director of the National State Park Leadership School. Attarian has over 30 years of experience in adventure education and outdoor leadership working with a range of individuals and settings, including adjudicated youth, college and university programs, businesses, camps, and Outward Bound. His most significant experiences have been with North Carolina Outward Bound (NCOB), where he worked as an instructor, climber, and course director for over 25 years. Currently, Attarian serves on the NCOB board of directors and chairs its safety committee. He is also a member of the American Alpine Club Safety Advisory Council and is a regional contributor to Accidents in North American Mountaineering. In his free time, Attarian enjoys rock climbing, outdoor living, and working on his hobby farm in western North Carolina. He resides in Raleigh.
Chapter 1. Introduction to Risk Management Risk Management Models Incident Countermeasures Emergency Action Plans Summary Chapter 2. Risk Management Legal Terms and Concepts Contracts Tort Law Due Diligence Duty to Warn Summary Chapter 3. Program Staff and Participants Instructors and Guides Staff Training Program Participants Summary Responding to Emergencies Open-Toed Shoes Returning Staff Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Peanut Allergy Lost Student Poor Route Finding Staying on Schedule Solo Instructing Medical History Can Make a Difference Inappropriate Physical Contact Waterfall Presents a Danger Bridge Jumping Client Injured While Rafting Summit Attempt Outing Turns Tragic Injury on the Challenge Course Day Hike Turns Into Overnight Training Exercise Goes Wrong Demonstration Goes Wrong Lost Kayakers Instructors Charged With Murder Chapter 4. Environmental Conditions Minimizing Objective Dangers Summary Scout Leaders Say They Got No Warning Lightning Strikes Climbers Lightning Strikes Campers Man Struck by Lightning on Solo Hike Excessive Heat Can Kill Avalanche Kills Skiers Mountain Lion Stalks Group Black Bear Problem Smile for the Camera Snake Bite Proceed With Caution When River Crossing Student Drowns in a Stream Crossing Drowning in a Forest Pool Student Drowns After Jumping Into Backcountry Swimming Hole Rescue Teams Save Church Group Open Canoes Over Open Water Chapter 5. Technology Technology and Adventure and Guided Programs Nontechnical and Technical Equipment Personal Protection Equipment Equipment Logistics Clothing Summary Stranded Hiker Uses Personal Locator Beacon to Summon Help Hikers Evacuated After Three SPOT Activations in Three Days Anchor Fails, Student Sues Fall From Climbing Wall Instructor's Inattention Blamed for Student's Death Repair Kits Can Be Deadly Automated External Defibrillator in the Woods Stove Fueling Incident Causes Serious Burns Boiling Water Fills Boot Boiling Water Scalds Chapter 6. Transportation Fifteen-Passenger Vans Transportation Alternatives Controlling Transportation Risk Maintenance Summary Narrow Road Proves to Be a Challenge Road Conditions Create Problem for Van Driver Tripping Incident Icy Road Conditions Trailer Towing Presents Risks No Brakes