In recent years there has been increased interest in growing willow and poplar trees, as fast-growing species that have several purposes, including use as biofuels for energy production. However, silviculture of these trees has been constrained by diseases such as Melampsora rusts. This book provides a comprehensive review of over two decades of extensive study of the rust diseases affecting willow and poplar. It provides insights into the population biology of Melampsora rusts in Europe, China, India and Chile, the genetics of their resistance, and their interaction with their hosts. The book offers information essential to the development of effective and sustainable disease control measures including the use of willow genotype mixtures and biological control agents.
Section 1: Taxonomy and overview of Rusts 1: Phylogenetic position of Melampsora in rust fungi inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences 2: A brief review of Melampsora rusts on Salix 3: The species of Melampsora on Salix (Salicaceae) 4: A brief summary of Melampsora species on Populus Section 2: Occurrence and population biology of Melampsora 5: Variability and population biology of Melampsora rusts on poplars 6: Genetic diversity of Melampsora willow rusts in Germany 7: Genetic structure of Melampsora larici-epitea populations in north-western Europe 8: Current taxonomic status of Melampsora species on poplars in China 9: Current status of poplar leaf rust in India 10: Melampsora Willow Rust in Chile and northern Europe; Part of a metapopulation? Section 3: Rust Resistance and Infection Process 11: Disease scoring by taking inoculum densities into consideration in leaf disc inoculations with poplar and willow rust 12: Interactions between poplar clones and Melampsora populations and their implications for breeding for durable resistance 13: Transgenic hybrid aspen with altered defensive chemistry - a model system to study the chemical basis of resistance? 14: Basidiospore-derived penetration by species of Cronartium and Melampsora: an outline Section 4: Rust Management 15: Host diversity, epidemic progression and pathogen evolution 16: SRC willow mixtures and rust disease development 17: SRC willow mixtures and yield 18: Effect of preventative fungicide sprays on Melampsora rust of poplar in the nursery Section 5: Rust mycoparasites and their potential for biological control 19: Biocontrol of rust fungi by Cladosporium tenuissimum 20: Biology and genetic diversity of the rust hyperparasite Sphaerellopsis filum in Central Europe