Satellite Networking: Principles and Protocols (2nd Revised edition)

Satellite Networking: Principles and Protocols (2nd Revised edition)

By: Zhili Sun (author)Hardback

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Description

This book provides up to date coverage of the basics of ATM and internet protocols, and characteristics of satellite networks and internetworking between satellite and terrestrial networks Satellite Networking: Principles and Protocols, Second Edition provides up to date information of the original topics in satellite networking and protocols focusing on Internet Protocols (IP) over satellites, broadband over satellites, next generation IP (IPv6) over satellites, new generation of DVB-S/S2 and DVB-RCS next generations and new services and applications. It also includes some analytical techniques for evaluation of end to end IP performance and QoS over satellite, reflecting the recent convergence of telecommunication, Internet, broadcasting and mobile networks. Topics new to this edition: Internetworking with MANET, DVB-S/S2 and DVB-RCS/RCS2 (including TCP/IP over DVB-S/RCS), recent developments in broadband satellite systems, convergence of services and network technologies (including Internet, telecom, mobile, TV, etc.), radio resource management, PEP, I-PEP, SCPS, traffic modelling and engineering with analysis and examples, and future developments of satellite networking. * Provides up to date coverage of the basics of ATM and internet protocols, and characteristics of satellite networks and internetworking between satellite and terrestrial networks (e.g. mobile ad hoc networks), including coverage of new services and applications (e.g. Internet, telecom, mobile and TV) * Discusses the real-time protocols including RTP, RTCP and SIP for real-time applications such as VoIP and MMC, and explains TCP/IP over satellite and evolution of IPv6 over satellite and beyond

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Contents

List of Figures xix List of Tables xxv About the Author xxvii Preface xxix Acknowledgements xxxi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Applications and Services of Satellite Networks 1 1.1.1 Roles of Satellite Networks 2 1.1.2 Network Software and Hardware 4 1.1.3 Satellite Network Interfaces 4 1.1.4 Network Services 5 1.1.5 Applications 5 1.2 ITU-R Definitions of Satellite Services 5 1.2.1 Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) 6 1.2.2 Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) 6 1.2.3 Broadcasting Satellite Service (BSS) 6 1.2.4 Other Satellite Services 6 1.3 ITU-T Definitions of Network Services 6 1.3.1 Interactive Services 7 1.3.2 Distribution Services 7 1.4 Internet Services and Applications 8 1.4.1 World Wide Web (WWW) 8 1.4.2 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 9 1.4.3 Telnet 9 1.4.4 Electronic Mail (email) 10 1.4.5 Multicast and Content Distribution 10 1.4.6 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) 10 1.4.7 Domain Name System (DNS) 11 1.5 Circuit-switching Network 11 1.5.1 Connection Set Up 12 1.5.2 Signalling 13 1.5.3 Transmission Multiplexing Hierarchy based on FDM 13 1.5.4 Transmission Multiplexing Hierarchy based on TDM 13 1.5.5 Space Switching and Time Switching 15 1.5.6 Coding Gain of Forward Error Correction (FEC) 16 1.6 Packet-switching Networks 17 1.6.1 Connection-oriented Approach 18 1.6.2 Connectionless Approach 19 1.6.3 Relationship between Circuit-switching and Packet-switching 20 1.6.4 Considerations of Packet Network Designs 20 1.6.5 Packet Header and Payload 21 1.6.6 Complexity and Heterogeneous Networks 21 1.6.7 Performance of Packet Transmissions 21 1.6.8 Impact of Bit Level Errors on Packet Level 22 1.7 OSI/ISO Reference Model 22 1.7.1 Protocol Terminology 23 1.7.2 Layering Principle 23 1.7.3 Functions of the Seven Layers 23 1.7.4 Fading of the OSI/ISO Reference Model 24 1.8 The ATM Protocol Reference Model 25 1.8.1 Narrowband ISDN (N-ISDN) 25 1.8.2 Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) 25 1.8.3 ATM Technology 25 1.8.4 Reference Model 26 1.8.5 Problems: Lack of Available Services and Applications 26 1.9 Internet Protocols Reference Model 27 1.9.1 Network Layer: IP Protocol 27 1.9.2 Network Technologies 27 1.9.3 Transport Layer: TCP and UDP 28 1.9.4 Application Layer 28 1.9.5 QoS and Control on Resources 28 1.10 Satellite Network 28 1.10.1 Access Network 29 1.10.2 Transit Network 29 1.10.3 Broadcast Network 29 1.10.4 Space Segment 29 1.10.5 Ground Segment 31 1.10.6 Satellite Orbits 31 1.10.7 Satellite Transmission Frequency Bands 32 1.11 Characteristics of Satellite Networks 34 1.11.1 Propagation Delay 34 1.11.2 Propagation Loss and Power Limited 35 1.11.3 Orbit Space and Bandwidth Limited for Coverage 35 1.11.4 Operational Complexity for LEO 35 1.12 Channel Capacity of Digital Transmissions 35 1.12.1 The Nyquist Formula for Noiseless Channels 36 1.12.2 The Shannon Theorem for Noise Channels 36 1.12.3 Channel Capacity Boundary 36 1.12.4 The Shannon Power Limit ( 1.6 dB) 36 1.12.5 Shannon Bandwidth Efficiency for Large EbMN0 37 1.13 Internetworking with Terrestrial Networks 38 1.13.1 Repeaters at the Physical Layer 38 1.13.2 Bridges at the Link Layer 38 1.13.3 Switches at the Physical, Link and Network Layers 39 1.13.4 Routers for Interconnecting Heterogeneous Networks 39 1.13.5 Protocol Translation, Stacking and Tunnelling 39 1.13.6 Quality of Service (QoS) 40 1.13.7 End-user QoS Class and Requirements 40 1.13.8 Network Performance 41 1.13.9 QoS and NP for Satellite Networking 42 1.14 Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) 43 1.14.1 The DVB Standards 44 1.14.2 Transmission System 44 1.14.3 Adaptation to Satellite Transponder Characteristics 45 1.14.4 Channel Coding 46 1.14.5 Reed Solomon (RS) Outer Coding, Interleaving and Framing 47 1.14.6 Inner Convolutional Coding 48 1.14.7 Baseband Shaping and Modulation 49 1.14.8 Error Performance Requirements 50 1.15 DVB-S Satellite Delivery 50 1.15.1 MPEG-2 Baseband Processing 51 1.15.2 Transport Stream (TS) 52 1.15.3 Service Objectives 52 1.15.4 Satellite Channel Adaptation 52 1.15.5 DVB Return Channel over Satellite (DVB-RCS) 53 1.15.6 TCP/IP over DVB 54 1.16 DVB Satellite Second Generation (DVB-S2) 54 1.16.1 Technology Novelty in the DVB-S2 55 1.16.2 Transmission System Architecture 56 1.16.3 Error Performance 58 1.17 DVB Satellite Services to Handheld Devices (DVB-SH) 59 1.17.1 Transmission System Architecture 60 1.17.2 Common Functions for both TDM and OFDM Modes 61 1.17.3 Functions for Single Carrier (TDM) Mode 62 1.17.4 Functions for Multi Carrier (OFDM) Mode 65 1.17.5 DVB-RCS2 69 1.18 Historical Development of Computer and Data Networks 69 1.18.1 Dawn of the Computer and Data Communications Age 70 1.18.2 Development of Local Area Networks (LANs) 70 1.18.3 Development of WANs and ISO/OSI 70 1.18.4 Birth of the Internet 70 1.18.5 Integration of Telephony and Data Networks 70 1.18.6 Development of Broadband Integrated Networks 71 1.18.7 The Killer Application WWW and Internet Evolutions 71 1.19 Historical Development of Satellite Communications 71 1.19.1 Start of Satellite and Space Eras 71 1.19.2 Early Satellite Communications: TV and Telephony 72 1.19.3 Development of Satellite Digital Transmission 72 1.19.4 Development of Direct-to-Home (DTH) Broadcast 72 1.19.5 Development of Satellite Maritime Communications 72 1.19.6 Satellite Communications in Regions and Countries 72 1.19.7 Satellite Broadband Networks and Mobile Networks 73 1.19.8 Internet over Satellite Networks 73 1.20 Convergence of Network Technologies and Protocols 73 1.20.1 Convergence of Services and Applications in User Terminals 73 1.20.2 Convergence of Network Technologies 74 1.20.3 Convergence of Network Protocols 75 1.20.4 Satellite Network Evolution 75 Further Readings 77 Exercises 78 2 Satellite Orbits and Networking Concepts 79 2.1 Laws of Physics 80 2.1.1 Kepler s Three Laws 80 2.1.2 Newton s Three Laws of Motion and The Universal Law of Gravity 80 2.1.3 Kepler s First Law: Satellite Orbits 81 2.1.4 Kepler s Second Law: Area Swept by a Satellite Vector 83 2.1.5 Kepler s Third Law: Orbit Period 83 2.1.6 Satellite Velocity 84 2.2 Satellite Orbit Parameters 85 2.2.1 Semi-Major Axis (a) 85 2.2.2 Eccentricity (e) 85 2.2.3 Inclination of Orbit (i) 85 2.2.4 Right Ascension of the Node ( ) and Argument of Perigee ( ) 86 2.3 Useful Orbits 87 2.3.1 Geosynchronous Earth Orbits 87 2.3.2 Geostationary Earth Orbits (GEOs) 87 2.3.3 High Elliptical Orbits (HEOs) 88 2.3.4 Notations of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellite Constellations 88 2.3.5 Orbital Perturbations 89 2.3.6 Satellite Altitude and Coverage 89 2.3.7 Antenna Gain and Beam-width Angle 90 2.3.8 Coverage Calculations 91 2.3.9 Distance and Propagation Delay from Earth Station to Satellite 92 2.4 Satellite Link Characteristics and Modulations for Transmissions 93 2.4.1 Satellite Link Characteristics 93 2.4.2 Modulation Techniques 95 2.4.3 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Schemes for Satellite Transmissions 96 2.4.4 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) 96 2.4.5 Quadrature PSK (QPSK) 97 2.4.6 Gaussian-filtered Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) 97 2.4.7 Bit Error Rate (BER): the Quality Parameter of Modulation Schemes 98 2.4.8 Satellite Networking in the Physical Layer 100 2.5 Forward Error Correction (FEC) 101 2.5.1 Linear Block Codes 101 2.5.2 Cyclic Codes 102 2.5.3 Trellis Coding and Convolutional Codes 102 2.5.4 Concatenated Codes 103 2.5.5 Turbo Codes 103 2.5.6 Performance of FEC 104 2.6 Multiple Access Techniques 105 2.6.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 106 2.6.2 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 106 2.6.3 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 107 2.6.4 Comparison of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA 108 2.7 Bandwidth Allocation 108 2.7.1 Fixed Assignment Access 109 2.7.2 Demand Assignment 109 2.7.3 Random Access 109 2.8 Satellite Networking Issues 110 2.8.1 Single-hop Satellite Connections 110 2.8.2 Multi-hop Satellite Connections 110 2.8.3 Inter-satellite Links (ISL) 111 2.8.4 Handovers 112 2.8.5 Satellite Intra-beam and Inter-beam Handovers 114 2.8.6 Earth Fixed Coverage versus Satellite Fixed Coverage 114 2.8.7 Routing within a Constellation of Satellite Networks 115 2.8.8 Internetworking 116 2.8.9 Satellite Availability and Diversity 116 Further Readings 118 Exercises 118 3 B-ISDN ATM and Internet Protocols 119 3.1 ATM Protocol and Fundamental Concepts 119 3.1.1 Packetisation Delay 121 3.1.2 Queuing Delay 121 3.1.3 Compromise Solution Between North America and Europe 122 3.2 ATM Layer 123 3.2.1 The GFC Field 123 3.2.2 The VPI and VCI Fields 123 3.2.3 The CLP Field 125 3.2.4 The PT Field 126 3.2.5 The HEC Field 126 3.3 ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) 126 3.3.1 AAL1 for Class A 127 3.3.2 AAL2 for Class B 129 3.3.3 AAL3/4 for Classes C and D 129 3.3.4 AAL5 for Internet Protocol 130 3.4 The Physical Layer 131 3.4.1 The Physical Medium (PM) Sublayers 131 3.4.2 The Transmission Convergence (TC) Sublayer 131 3.4.3 ATM Cell Transmissions 132 3.5 ATM Interfaces and ATM Networking 134 3.5.1 User Network Access 134 3.5.2 Network Node Interconnections 135 3.5.3 ATM DXI 136 3.5.4 B-ICI 136 3.5.5 Permanent Virtual Connections versus Switched Virtual Connections 136 3.5.6 ATM Signalling 137 3.5.7 ATM Addressing 137 3.5.8 Address Registration 139 3.6 Network Traffic, QoS and Performance Issues 139 3.6.1 Traffic Descriptors 140 3.6.2 QoS Parameters 140 3.6.3 Performance Issues 140 3.7 Network Resource Management 141 3.7.1 Connection Admission Control (CAC) 142 3.7.2 UPC and NPC 142 3.7.3 Priority Control and Congestion Control 142 3.7.4 Traffic Shaping 143 3.7.5 Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA) 143 3.7.6 Leaky Bucket Algorithm (LBA) 143 3.7.7 Virtual Scheduling Algorithm (VSA) 146 3.8 Internet Protocols 146 3.8.1 Internet Networking Basics 147 3.8.2 Protocol Hierarchies 147 3.8.3 Connectionless Network Layer 148 3.8.4 The IP Packet Format 148 3.8.5 IP Address 150 3.8.6 Mapping Between Internet and Physical Network Addresses 151 3.8.7 ARP, RARP and HDCP 152 3.9 Internet Routing Protocols 152 3.9.1 The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) 152 3.9.2 The Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol (EGRP) 153 3.10 Transport Layer Protocols: TCP and UDP 153 3.10.1 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 153 3.10.2 The TCP Segment Header Format 154 3.10.3 Connection Set Up and Data Transmission 155 3.10.4 Congestion and Flow Control 156 3.10.5 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 157 3.11 IP and ATM Internetworking 158 3.11.1 Packet Encapsulation 159 3.11.2 IP and ATM Address Resolution 160 Further Readings 161 Exercises 161 4 Satellite Internetworking with Terrestrial Networks 163 4.1 Networking Concepts 163 4.2 Networking Terminology 165 4.2.1 Private Network 165 4.2.2 Public Network 165 4.2.3 Quality Aspects of Telephony Services 166 4.2.4 IP Based Network 166 4.3 Network Elements and Connections 167 4.3.1 Network Terminals 167 4.3.2 Network Nodes 168 4.3.3 Network Connections 168 4.3.4 End-to-End Paths 169 4.3.5 Reference Configurations 169 4.4 Network Traffic and Signalling 170 4.4.1 User Traffic and Network Services 170 4.4.2 Signalling Systems and Signalling Traffic 171 4.4.3 In-band Signalling 172 4.4.4 Out-of-Band Signalling 173 4.4.5 Associated and Disassociated Channel Signalling 173 4.4.6 Network Management 174 4.4.7 Network Operation Systems and Mediation Functions 175 4.5 Access and Transit Transmission Networks 176 4.5.1 Analogue Telephony Networks 177 4.5.2 Telephony Network Traffic Engineering Concept 177 4.5.3 Access to Satellite Networks in the Frequency Domain 178 4.5.4 On-Board Circuit Switching 179 4.6 Digital Telephony Networks 180 4.6.1 Digital Multiplexing Hierarchy 180 4.6.2 Satellite Digital Transmission and On-Board Switching 181 4.6.3 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) 181 4.6.4 Limitations of PDH 181 4.7 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) 182 4.7.1 Development of SDH 183 4.7.2 The SDH Standards 183 4.7.3 Mapping from PDH to SDH 184 4.7.4 The Benefits of SDH 185 4.7.5 Synchronous Operation 185 4.7.6 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) 187 4.7.7 SDH Over Satellite The Intelsat Scenarios 188 4.8 Hypothetical References for Satellite Networks 189 4.8.1 ITU-T Hypothetical Reference Connection (HRX) 189 4.8.2 ITU-R Hypothetical Reference Digital Path (HRDP) for Satellite 190 4.8.3 Performance Objectives 191 4.9 Satellites and MANET 191 4.9.1 Networking Scenarios 193 4.10 Interworking with Heterogeneous Networks 197 4.10.1 Services 197 4.10.2 Addressing 198 4.10.3 Routing 198 4.10.4 Evolution 198 Further Readings 199 Exercises 200 5 B-ISDN ATM over Satellite Networks 201 5.1 Background 201 5.1.1 Networking Issues 202 5.1.2 Satellite Services in the B-ISDN Networking Environment 202 5.2 Design Issues of Satellite B-ISDN ATM Systems 204 5.2.1 Propagation Delay 204 5.2.2 Attenuation and Constraints 205 5.3 The GEO Satellite B-ISDN ATM Networking Architecture 206 5.3.1 Ground Segment 206 5.3.2 Space Segment 207 5.3.3 Satellite Bandwidth Resource Management 207 5.3.4 Connection Admission Control (CAC) 209 5.3.5 Network Policing Functions 209 5.3.6 Reactive Congestion Control 209 5.4 Advanced Satellite B-ISDN ATM Networks 210 5.4.1 Radio Access Layer 210 5.4.2 On-Board Processing (OBP) Characteristics 211 5.4.3 B-ISDN ATM On-Board Switch 211 5.4.4 Multibeam Satellites 214 5.4.5 LEO/MEO Satellite Constellations 215 5.4.6 Inter-Satellite Links (ISL) 215 5.4.7 Mobility Management 216 5.4.8 Use of Higher Frequency Spectrum 216 5.5 B-ISDN ATM Performance 217 5.5.1 Layered Model of Performance for B-ISDN 217 5.5.2 Network Performance Parameters 218 5.5.3 Impact of Satellite Burst Errors on the ATM Layer 220 5.5.4 Impact of Burst Errors on AAL Protocols 221 5.5.5 Error Control Mechanisms 221 5.5.6 Enhancement Techniques for Broadband Satellite Networks 222 5.6 Evolution of Broadband Satellite Systems 224 Further Readings 225 Exercises 225 6 Internet Protocol (IP) over Satellite Networks 227 6.1 Different Viewpoints of Satellite Networking 227 6.1.1 Protocol-centric Viewpoint of Satellite IP Network 228 6.1.2 Satellite-centric Viewpoint of Global Networks and the Internet 229 6.1.3 Network-centric Viewpoint of Satellite Networks 230 6.2 IP Packet Encapsulation 231 6.2.1 Basic Concepts 231 6.2.2 High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) Protocol 232 6.2.3 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 232 6.2.4 Media Access Control 233 6.2.5 IP Over Satellite 233 6.3 Satellite IP Networking 233 6.3.1 Routing On-Board Satellites 235 6.3.2 IP Mobility in Satellite Networks 235 6.3.3 Address Resolution 237 6.4 IP Multicast Over Satellite 237 6.4.1 IP Multicast Concepts 238 6.4.2 IP Multicast Addressing 239 6.4.3 Multicast Group Management 239 6.4.4 IP Multicast Routing 240 6.4.5 IP Multicast Scope 241 6.4.6 IGMP Behaviour in Satellite Environments 241 6.4.7 Multicast Routing Protocols in Satellite Environments 243 6.4.8 Reliable Multicast Protocols Over Satellites 243 6.5 Basic Network Security Mechanisms 245 6.5.1 Security Approaches 245 6.5.2 Single-direction Hashing Functions 246 6.5.3 Symmetrical Codes (With Secret Keys) 246 6.5.4 Asymmetrical Codes (With Public/Private Keys) 247 6.6 Satellite Networking Security 248 6.6.1 IP Security (IPsec) 248 6.6.2 Firewall and VPN 249 6.6.3 IP Multicast Security 250 6.7 Internet Quality of Service (IP QoS) 250 6.7.1 Layered Model of Performance for IP Service 251 6.7.2 IP Packet Transfer Performance Parameters 252 6.7.3 IP Network Performance Objectives for QoS Classes 253 6.7.4 Guidance on IP QoS Class Usage 254 6.8 Integrated Services (Intserv) Architectures for QoS 254 6.8.1 Integrated Services Architecture (ISA) Principles 255 6.8.2 Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) 256 6.8.3 Intserv Service Classes 257 6.9 Differentiated Services (Diffserv) for QoS 258 6.9.1 Diffserv Architecture 258 6.9.2 Traffic Classification 260 6.9.3 Traffic Conditioning 261 6.9.4 Diffserv Per Hop Behaviour (PHB) 261 6.9.5 Supporting Intserv Across the Satellite Network Diffserv Domain 263 6.10 DVB Over Satellite 264 6.10.1 MPEG-2 Source Coding and Multiplexing DVB-S Streams 265 6.10.2 DVB-S System 266 6.10.3 DVB Security 268 6.10.4 Conditional Access in DVB-S 268 6.10.5 DVB-RCS Interactive Service and IP over DVB 270 6.10.6 DVB-RCS Security 271 6.10.7 IP Multicast Security 271 6.11 DVB-S and DVB-RCS Network Architecture 272 6.11.1 On-Board Processor (OBP) 273 6.11.2 Management Station (MS) 274 6.11.3 Regenerative Satellite Gateway (RSGW) 274 6.11.4 Return Channel Satellite Terminal (RCST) 275 6.11.5 Network Interface 275 6.11.6 Network System Characteristics 276 6.12 Network Protocol Stack Architecture 276 6.13 The Physical Layer (PHY) 277 6.13.1 Up-link (DVB-RCS Compliant) 277 6.13.2 Time Slots 278 6.13.3 Frames 278 6.13.4 Superframes 280 6.13.5 Carrier Type and Frame Composition 280 6.13.6 Uplink MF-TDMA Channel Frequency Plan 281 6.13.7 Downlink (DVB-S Compliant) 282 6.13.8 RCS Terminal (RCST) Transmission 283 6.14 Satellite MAC (SMAC) Layer 284 6.14.1 Transport Mechanisms 284 6.14.2 MPEG-2, DVB-S and DVB-RCS Tables 285 6.15 Multi Protocol Encapsulation (MPE) 288 6.16 Satellite Link Control Layer 290 6.16.1 Session Control 290 6.16.2 Resource Control 293 6.16.3 Capacity Request Categories 294 6.16.4 Connection Control 294 6.17 Quality of Service (QoS) 297 6.17.1 Traffic Classes 297 6.17.2 Flow Classification 298 6.17.3 Link Layer Connection QoS Adaptation 298 6.18 Network Layer 299 6.18.1 IP Routing and Address Resolution 299 6.18.2 IP Multicast Star and Mesh Configurations 301 Further Readings 303 Exercises 305 7 Impact of Satellite Networks on Transport Layer Protocols 307 7.1 Introduction 308 7.1.1 Application Characteristics 308 7.1.2 Client and Server Host Parameters 309 7.1.3 Satellite Network Configurations 309 7.1.4 TCP and Satellite Channel Characteristics 310 7.1.5 TCP Flow Control, Congestion Control and Error Recovery 311 7.2 TCP Performance Analysis 313 7.2.1 First TCP Segment Transmission 313 7.2.2 TCP Transmission in the Slow-start Stage 314 7.2.3 TCP Transmission in the Congestion Avoidance Stage 314 7.3 Slow-start Enhancement for Satellite Networks 315 7.3.1 TCP for Transactions 316 7.3.2 Slow-start and Delayed Acknowledgement (ACK) 316 7.3.3 Larger Initial Window 317 7.3.4 Terminating Slow-start 317 7.4 Loss Recovery Enhancement 318 7.4.1 Fast Retransmission and Fast Recovery 318 7.4.2 Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) 319 7.4.3 SACK Based Enhancement Mechanisms 319 7.4.4 ACK Congestion Control 320 7.4.5 ACK Filtering 320 7.4.6 Explicit Congestion Notification 321 7.4.7 Detecting Corruption Loss 322 7.4.8 Congestion Avoidance Enhancement Policy 322 7.5 Enhancements for Satellite Networks Using Interruptive Mechanisms 323 7.5.1 TCP Spoofing 323 7.5.2 Cascading TCP or Split TCP 324 7.5.3 Other Considerations for Satellite Networking 325 7.6 Impacts on Applications 325 7.6.1 Bulk Data Transfer 325 7.6.2 Interactive Applications 326 7.6.3 Distributed Caching for Internet Services and Applications 326 7.6.4 Web Caching in Satellite Networks 327 7.7 Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) 328 7.7.1 Basics of RTP 328 7.7.2 RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) 331 7.7.3 Sender Report (SR) Packets 332 7.7.4 Receiver Report (RR) Packets 333 7.7.5 Source Description (SDES) RTCP Packet 333 7.7.6 SAP and SIP Protocols for Session Initiations 334 7.7.7 Session Directory Service (SDS) 336 7.8 Voice over IP 336 7.8.1 Gateway Decomposition 336 7.8.2 Protocols 336 7.8.3 Gatekeepers 337 7.8.4 Multimedia Conferencing (MMC) 337 7.8.5 Conference Control 337 Further Readings 337 Exercises 338 8 Next Generation Internet (NGI) over Satellite 341 8.1 Introduction 342 8.2 New Services and Applications 342 8.2.1 Internet Integrated Services 343 8.2.2 Elastic and Inelastic Traffic 343 8.2.3 QoS Provision and Network Performance 344 8.3 Traffic Modelling and Characterisation 344 8.3.1 Traffic Engineering Techniques 345 8.3.2 Traffic Modelling 345 8.3.3 Statistical Methods for Traffic Modelling 346 8.3.4 Renewal Models 346 8.3.5 Markov Models 346 8.3.6 Fluid Models 347 8.3.7 Auto-regressive and Moving Average Models 347 8.3.8 Self-similar Models 348 8.4 The Nature of Internet Traffic 348 8.4.1 World Wide Web (WWW) 348 8.4.2 Pareto Distribution Model for Self-similar Traffic 350 8.4.3 Fractional Brownian Motion (FBM) Process 350 8.4.4 Consideration of User Behaviour in Traffic Modelling 351 8.4.5 Voice Traffic Modelling 352 8.4.6 On-off Model for Voice Traffic 354 8.4.7 Video Traffic Modelling 355 8.4.8 Multi-layer Modelling for WWW Traffic 356 8.5 Traffic Engineering 357 8.5.1 Traffic Engineering Principles 358 8.5.2 Internet Traffic Engineering 360 8.6 Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) 361 8.6.1 MPLS Forwarding Paradigm 362 8.6.2 MPLS Basic Operation 363 8.6.3 MPLS and Diffserv Interworking 366 8.6.4 MPLS and ATM Interworking 367 8.6.5 MPLS with Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE) 368 8.7 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 369 8.7.1 Basics of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 369 8.7.2 IPv6 Addressing 371 8.7.3 IPv6 Networks over Satellites 374 8.7.4 IPv6 Transitions 375 8.7.5 IPv6 Tunnelling Through Satellite Networks 375 8.7.6 The 6to4 Translation via Satellite Networks 376 8.7.7 Issues with 6to4 377 8.7.8 Future Development of Satellite Networking 378 Further Readings 380 Exercises 381 Index 383

Product Details

  • publication date: 25/04/2014
  • ISBN13: 9781118351604
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 422
  • ID: 9781118351604
  • weight: 804
  • ISBN10: 1118351606
  • edition: 2nd Revised edition

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