A comprehensive overview of Saudi Arabia's environment, this volume is a unique and authoritative text on the geological and environmental aspects of Saudi Arabia, a country about which little is known by the outside world. Saudi Arabia is a fascinating country with a long tradition of environmental awareness and sensitivity, pitted against some of the harshest environments on earth. The book brings together a wide range of published and unpublished material which will be of interest to environmental scientists, geologists, geographers and biologists. A comprehensive bibliography is included. This book will be indispensable for university courses dealing with the Middle East and arid zone environments as well as various regional/environmental courses.
Dr Peter Vincent has spent the last thirty years teaching Physical Geography at Lancaster University, UK. Since 1983 he has visited Saudi Arabia more or less on an annual basis and, in close collaboration with the Saudi Geological Survey, has visited all parts of the Kingdom. He has a particular interest in arid zone geomorphology.
Preface Acknowledgements 1. An Environment Discovered 1.1 Prologue 1.2 Early European Exploration 1.3 Nineteenth Century 1.4 Twentieth Century 1.5 Contemporary Exploration 2. The Kingdom 2.1 The Physical Setting 2.2 Physiographic Provinces 2.3 A Journey Through Time 2.4 The Modern Kingdom - Pressures on the Environment 3. Geology 3.1 Main Geological Units 3.2 Brief Geological History 3.3 Regional Geology 4. Climate 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Air Masses 4.3 General Circulation 4.4 The Seasons 4.5 Atmospheric Humidity and Evaporation 4.6 Precipitation 4.7 Global Radiation, Sunshine and Cloud 4.8 Wind and Visibility 4.9 Climatic Regions 4.10 Climate and Environmental Change 5. Hydrogeology 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Drainage Net 5.3 Surface Runoff 5.4 Dams 5.5 Springs 5.6 Lakes 5.7 Groundwater: Aquifers and Aquicludes 5.8 Shallow Alluvial Aquifers 5.9 Aquifer Water Quality 5.10 Groundwater Recharge and Karst 5.11 Water and Irrigation 5.12 Water Harvesting Urban Areas 5.13 Urban Water Demand 6. Geomorphology 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Weathering 6.3 Denudation History 6.4 Tertiary Erosion and Drainage Development 6.5 Deep Weathering Features 6.6 Pediments and Gravel Plains 6.7 Inselbergs and Kopjes 6.8 Alluvial Fans 6.9 Sand Dunes and Sand Seas 6.10 Wind Erosion - Yardangs 6.11 Karst 6.12 Volcanic Landforms 6.13 Escarpments and Cuestas 6.14 Quaternary Sea Level Changes 6.15 Loessic Alluvial Silts 6.16 Exhumed Glacial and Periglacial Features 7. Biogeography 7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Fauna 7.3 The Flora 7.4 Vegetation 8. Soils & Soil Erosion 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Entisols 8.3 Inceptisols 8.4 Aridsols 8.5 Soil Map Associations 8.6 Soil Mineralogy 8.7 Recent Pedogenic Changes 8.8 Soil Erosion 8.9 Loess and Loess-like Soils 8.10 Paleosols 9. Environmental Impacts and Hazards 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Geohazards 9.3 Biological Hazards 9.4 Industrial Hazards 9.5 Irrigation Impacts 9.6 Land Degradation 9.7 1991 Gulf War Impacts 10. Conservation 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Islam and the Environment 10.3 Traditional Land use Systems 10.4 Meteorology and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA) 10.5 Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW) 10.6 National Parks 10.7 National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development 10.8 A System Plan for Protected Areas 10.9 National Wildlife Research Centre Captive Breeding Programs 10.10 Conservation and the 1991 Gulf War 10.11 Sustainable Development and the Environment 10.12 Ecotourism Appendices Glossary of Arabic terms References Subject Index