This study is the first up-to-date comprehensive analysis of Continental Saxon identity in antiquity and the early middle ages. Building on recent scholarship on barbarian ethnicity, this study emphasises not just the constructed and open-ended nature of Saxon identity, but also the crucial role played by texts as instruments and resources of identity-formation. This book traces this process of identity-formation over the course of eight centuries, from its earliest beginnings in Roman ethnography to its reinvention in the monasteries and bishoprics of ninth-century Saxony.
Though the Saxons were mentioned as early as AD 150, they left no written evidence of their own before c. 840. Thus, for the first seven centuries, we can only look at the Saxons through the eyes of their Roman enemies, Merovingian neighbours and Carolingian conquerors. Such external perspectives do not yield objective descriptions of a people, but rather reflect an ongoing discourse on Saxon identity, in which outside authors described who they imagined, wanted or feared the Saxons to be: dangerous pirates, noble savages, bestial pagans or faithful subjects. Significantly, these outside views deeply influenced how ninth-century Saxons eventually came to think about themselves, using Roman and Frankish texts to reinvent the Saxons as a noble and Christian people.
Robert Flierman is Assistant Professor in Medieval History at the Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
List of Maps Acknowledgements Note on annotation and translation Abbreviations 1. Introduction1 2. The most ferocious of enemies. Saxons from a Roman perspective 3. Rebels, Allies, neighbours. Saxons from a Merovingian perspective 4. Gens perfida or populus Christianus? The Saxons and the Saxon Wars in Carolingian historiography 5. From defeat to salvation. Remembering the Saxon Wars in Carolingian Saxony Conclusion Bibliography Primary sources Secondary literature