Well-structured and adopting a pedagogical approach, this self-contained monograph covers the fundamentals of scanning probe microscopy, showing how to use the techniques for investigating physical and chemical properties on the nanoscale and how they can be used for a wide range of soft materials. It concludes with a section on the latest techniques in nanomanipulation and patterning. This first book to focus on the applications is a must-have for both newcomers and established researchers using scanning probe microscopy in soft matter research. From the contents: * Atomic Force Microscopy and Other Advanced Imaging Modes * Probing of Mechanical, Thermal Chemical and Electrical Properties * Amorphous, Poorly Ordered and Organized Polymeric Materials * Langmuir-Blodgett and Layer-by-Layer Structures * Multi-Component Polymer Systems and Fibers * Colloids and Microcapsules * Biomaterials and Biological Structures * Nanolithography with Intrusive AFM Tipand Dip-Pen Nanolithography * Microcantilever-Based Sensors
Vladimir V. Tsukruk received his MS degree in physics from the National University of Ukraine, and his PhD and DSc in chemistry from the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. He carried out his post-doc at the universities of Marburg, Germany, and Akron, USA, and is currently a professor at the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology. He was elected an APS Fellow in 2010 and an MRS Fellow in 2011. He serves on the editorial advisory boards of five professional journals and has co-authored around 300 refereed articles in archival journals, as well as five books. Professor Tsukruk's research in the fields of surfaces/ interfaces, molecular assembly, nano- and bioinspired materials has been recognized by the Humboldt Research Award and the NSF Special Creativity Award, among others. Currently an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Washington University in St. Louis, Srikanth Singamaneni received his MS degree in electrical engineering from Western Michigan University and his PhD in polymer materials science and engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology. A recipient of the Materials Research Society Graduate Student Gold Award, he has co-authored over 60 refereed articles in archival journals as well as five book chapters. His current research interests include applications of scanning probe microscopy in biology, physical/chemical sensors based on organic/inorganic hybrids and plasmonic biosensors for label-free and point of care diagnostics.
PART I: Microscopy Fundamentals INTRODUCTION SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY BASICS Basic Principles of Scanning Probe Microscopy Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Advent of Atomic Force Microscopy Overview of Instrumentation Probes and Cantilevers in Scanning Probe Microscopy Modes of Operation Advantages and Limitations BASICS FOR ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY STUDIES OF SOFT MATTER Physical Principles: Forces of Interaction Imaging in Controlled Environment Artifacts in AFM Imaging of Soft Materials Some Suggestions and Hints for Avoiding Artifacts ADVANCED IMAGING MODES Surface Force Spectroscopy Friction Force Microscopy Shear Modulation Force Microscopy Chemical Force Microscopy Pulsed-Force Microscopy Colloidal Probe Microscopy Scanning Thermal Microscopy Kelvin Probe and Electrostatic Force Microscopy Conductive Force Microscopy Magnetic Force Microscopy Scanning Acoustic Force Microscopy High-Speed Scanning Probe Microscopy PART II: Probing Nanoscale Physical and Chemical Properties MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS AND MACROMOLECULES Elements of Contact Mechanics and Elastic Modulus Probing of Elastic Moduli for Different Materials: Selected Examples Adhesion Measurements Visoelasticity Measurements Friction Unfolding of Macromolecules PROBING OF MICROTHERMAL PROPERTIES Introduction Measurements of Glass Transition Melting, Crystallization, and Liquid Crystalline Phase Transformations Thermal Expansion of Microstructures Surface Thermal Conductivity CHEMICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES Chemical Interactions Electrochemical Properties Work Function and Surface Potential Conductivity Magnetic Properties SCANNING PROBE OPTICAL TECHNIQUES Fundamental Principles Introduction to Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Examples of NSOM Studies of Polymers and Polymer Blends Multicolor NSOM Measurements Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and Microscopy AFM Tip-Enhanced Fluorescence Integrating AFM with Fluorescence Optical Microscopy Integrating AFM with Confocal Raman Microscopy PART III: Scanning Probe Techniques for Various Soft Materials AMORPHOUS AND POORLY ORDERED POLYMERS Introduction Glassy Amorphous Polymers Rubbers Polymer Gels Interpenetrating Networks ORGANIZED POLYMERIC MATERIALS Crystalline Polymers Liquid Crystalline Polymeric Materials Periodic Polymeric Structures HIGHLY BRANCHED MACROMOLECULES Dendrimers and Dendritic Molecules Brush Molecules Hyperbranched Polymers Star Molecules Highly Branched Nanoparticles MULTICOMPONENT POLYMER SYSTEMS AND FIBERS Polymer Blends Block Copolymers Polymer Nanocomposites Porous Membranes Micro- and Nanofibers ENGINEERED SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL MATERIALS Brush Polymer Layers Self-Assembled Monolayers Adsorbed Macromolecules on Different Substrates LANGMUIR-BLODGETT AND LAYER-BY-LAYER STRUCTURES LbL Films Langmuir-Blodgett Films COLLOIDS AND MICROCAPSULES Colloids and Latexes Thin Shell Microcapsules Replicas and Anisotropic Template Structures Interfacial Interactions Between Particles and Surfaces BIOMATERIALS AND BIOLOGICAL STRUCTURES Imaging Adsorbed Biomacromolecules Probing Specific Biomolecular Interactions Mechanics of Individual Biomacromolecules Single-Cell Elasticity Lipid Bilayers as Cell Membrane Mimics PART IV: Nanomanipulation, Patterning, and Sensing SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY ON PRACTICAL DEVICES Electrical SPM of Active Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Magnetic Force Microscopy of Storage Devices NSOM of Electrooptical Devices and Nanostructures Friction Force Microscopy of Storage Media and MEMS Devices NANOLITHOGRAPHY WITH INTRUSIVE AFM TIP Introduction to AFM Nanolithography Mechanical Nanolithography Local Oxidative Nanolithography Electrostatic Nanolithography Thermomechanical Nanolithography DIP-PEN NANOLITHOGRAPHY Basics of the Ink and Pen Approach Writing with a Single Pen Simultaneous Writing with Multiple Pens and Large-Scale DPN MICROCANTILEVER-BASED SENSORS Basic Modes of Operation Thermal and Vapor Sensing Sensing in Liquid Environment