A comprehensive introductory text covering solar photovoltaic technologies and its increasing number of applications to generate clean energy around the globe. It treats the fundamentals of solar cells, technologies, solar modules and arrays, solar photovoltaic systems, storage batteries, power conditioning, equipment design of solar PV systems, building integrated photovoltaics, system installation, operation and maintenance, manufacturing and worldwide players and markets. Written in a clear style and with multiple illustrations, this volume is intended for students in natural sciences, engineering and energy management and professionals as an introduction to the subject.
Dr. P. Jayarama Reddy is an energy consultant to the solar photovoltaic industry and has made it his mission to promote the application of photovoltaics in renewable energy initiatives. Moreover, he and serves as a board member on several international renewable energy companies related solar module fabrication, power generation from biomass (rice hisk), and municipal solid waste. He is retired as a professor of Physics of Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi, India and has devoted a large part of his life to crystal physics and the application of advanced materials in the semi-conductor and thin film industry. He has worked in the various big research laboratories, under which those at Cornell University (US), Imperial College (UK), Charles University (Czech Rep.) and Stuttgart University (Germany). Dr. Reddy is a Fellow of if the Institute of Physics (UK).
1. Fundamentals of Solar Cells 1.1 Physics of Semi-conductors 1.2 Generation of Charge Carriers due to Photon Absorption 1.3 Theory of p-n Junction 1.4 Principle of Operation a p-n Junction Solar Cell 1.5 Relation of Voc and Eg 2. Solar Cell Technologies 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Single Crystalline Silicon Cells 2.3 Poly (Multi) Crystalline Silicon Cells 2.4 Amorphous Silicon Cells 2.5 Transfer Techniques for Thin film Silicon Solar Cells 2.6 Thin Film Solar Cell Technologies 2.6.1 CIS-based Solar Cells 2.6.2 CuInS2 based Solar Cells 2.6.3 CdTe-based Solar Cells 2.6.4 Dye-sensitized Cells 2.6.5 III - V solar cells 2.6.6 Theremo Photovoltaic (TPV) Devices 2.7 Present Status of different PV Technologies 2.8 Production of Solar Grade Polycrystalline Silicon 2.9 Higher Yields from PV Modules 2.10 Performance of Solar Cell 2.10.1 Spectral Response 2.10.2 Effect of Temperature 2.10.3 Effect of Electronic Defects 2.10.4 Effect of Metallization and Cell Resistance 3. Solar Modules & Arrays 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Module Specifications 3.3 Power from the Module 3.4 Fabrication of Photovoltaic Modules 3.4.1 Module Materials 3.4.2 Fabrication Process Steps 3.5 Module Testing 3.6 Selection of Modules 3.7 Glassless PV modules 4. Solar Photovoltaic Systems 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Types of Solar PV Systems 4.2.1 Stand-alone Systems 4.2.2 Hybrid PV Systems 4.2.3 Grid-connected PV Systems 4.3 PV Array Testing for faults 4.4 System Performance 4.5 Features specific to SPV power systems 5. Storage Batteries 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Battery Life and DOD 5.3 Types of Batteries 5.4 Battery Charging 5.5 State of Charge 5.6 Effect of Temperature 5.7 Battery for Photovoltaic Application 5.8 Battery Aging 5.9 Important Guidelines 6. Power Conditioning Equipment 6.1 Charge Controller 6.2 Inverter 6.2.1 High Frequency Compact Sine Wave Inverter 6.2.2 Grid Connected Sine Wave Inverter 6.2.3 Three-Phase Sine Wave Inverter for Pumping Applications 6.2.4 Efficiency of Inverter 6.3 Test Instrumentation for BOS 7. Design, Installation and Operation of a Solar PV System 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Conceptual Aspects of System Design 7.3 Design Parameters 7.4 System Design Prerequisites 7.5 Estimation of Load 7.6 Sizing of the Array 7.7 Sizing of the Battery System 7.8 Selection of the Array Mounting 7.9 Safety and Protection 7.10 SYSTEM Installation 7.11 Start up and Checkout Procedures 7.12 Operation and Maintenance Guidelines 8. Building Integrated Photovoltaics 8.1 Introduction 8.2 BIPV Components and Systems 8.3 System Design 8.4 Future Prospects 8.5 Typical Cases 8.6 Case Studies 9. Energy Analysis and Environmental Issues 9.1 Energy Analysis 9.1.1 Introduction 9.1.2 Energy Analysis of PV Cells and Modules 9.1.3 Energy Analysis of PV Systems 9.2 Environmental Issues 9.2.1 External Costs & Life Cycle Analysis 9.2.2 Environmental Risks/Hazards: 10. Market for Photovoltaics 10.1 Advantages and Drawbacks of PV 10.2 Applications of PV 10.3 Global Production and Costs of Solar PV 10.3.1 Introduction 10.3.2 Production Volumes of PV 10.3.3 Past & Present Costs ofcWafered Silicon Solar Cells 10.3.4 Projected Costs of Wafered Silicon Cells 10.3.5 Status of Thin Film Technologies 10.3.6 Large Scale Manufacturing of TF Modules 10.4 Economics of PV Ann-1: Measurement of I-V Curve of a Solar Cell Ann-2: Solar Radiation Measuring Instruments Ann-3: PV Module Fabrication Ann-4: Measurement of I-V Behaviour of a PV Module Ann-5: Format for Estimating Average Dialy Load Ann-6: Format for PV System Sizing Ann-7: Sizing Example for PV Residential System Glossary, Index