This report is intended to provide a brief historical perspective of the evolution of the interacademy program during the past half-century, recognizing that many legacies of the Soviet era continue to influence government approaches in Moscow and Washington and to shape the attitudes of researchers toward bilateral cooperation in both countries (of special interest is the changing character of the program during the age of perestroika (restructuring) in the late 1980s in the Soviet Union); to describe in some detail the significant interacademy activities from late 1991, when the Soviet Union fragmented, to mid-2003; and to set forth lessons learned about the benefits and limitations of interacademy cooperation and to highlight approaches that have been successful in overcoming difficulties of implementation.
1 Front Matter; 2 1. U.S.-soviet Scientific Cooperation in the Age of Confrontation; 3 2. Perestroika and Expansion of Scientific Cooperation; 4 3. Emergence of the New Russia: High Expectations, Harsh Realities, and the Path Ahead; 5 4. National Security Issues and a Wider Agenda for Cooperation; 6 5. Supporting Innovation: From Basic Research to Payment for Sales; 7 6. Lessons Learned and the Future of the Interacademy Program; 8 Epilogue; 9 Appendix A: Highlights of Early U.S.-Soviet Relations (1725-1957); 10 Appendix B: Agreement of the Exchange of Scientists between the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1959); 11 Appendix C: Agreement on Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Health between the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences (2002); 12 Appendix D: Agreement for Scientifc Cooperation between the Institute of Medicine of the USA and the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR (1988); 13 Appendix E: Joint Statement by the Presidents of the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences [on Preventing and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Material], February 22, 2002; 14 Appendix F: Annex 2 to the Agreement on Cooperation in Science, Engineering, and Health between the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences (2002); 15 Appendix G: Joint Statement by the Presidents of the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences [ on the Development of Knowledge-Based Economics], February 22, 2002; 16 Appendix H: Cooperation Between U.S. and Russian Academies Encourages Russian Investments in Innoative Research; 17 Appendix I: Innovation in the Russian Federation (2001); 18 Appendix J: Personal Trends in the Russian Academy of Sciences; 19 Appendix K: Innovation Projects of National Significance; 20 Appendix L: The Threats to Russia (View of the Ministry for Emergency Situations); 21 References