Second Generation Biofuels and Biomass: Essential Guide for Investors, Scientists and Decision Makers

Second Generation Biofuels and Biomass: Essential Guide for Investors, Scientists and Decision Makers

By: Roland A. Jansen (author)Hardback

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Description

This guide to investing in the bioenergy market covers the topic from both a scientific, economic and political perspective. It describes the increasing number of second generation biodiesel projects which are now emerging in anticipation of growing sustainability concerns by governments, and in response to market demands for improved process efficiencies and greater feedstock production yields. The book also closely examines the science and technology involved in second generation biofuels and gives concrete examples, such as in the aviation industry. The result is an essential guide for scientists, investors, politicians and decision-makers in the energy sector.

About Author

Roland A. Jansen, from The Netherlands, holds a degree in Business Administration (lic.oec.HSG) from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland. Mr. Jansen is CEO of Mother Earth Investments AG (Switzerland) and Biomass Partners Ltd. in Hong Kong. Mother Earth Investments AG manages assets in natural resources for banks, private clients, pension funds and family offices. He publishes his research bi-monthly in the Mother Earth Commodity Analysis Report. Biomass Partners in Hong Kong Ltd. trades second generation biofuels and biomass on behalf of mines, powerplants and refineries. He is the author of ?Profits from Natural Resources?, John Wiley & Sons, New York, (1998). Mr Jansen has appeared regularly on Bloomberg Television to give his views on commodity trends. He is also a regular guest speaker at conferences and universities around the world and serves as a honorary consul for The Netherlands in Liechtenstein.

Contents

Acknowledgments xv Abbreviations xix 1 The Commodity Case Introduction 1 1.1 Commodity Cycles Past and Present 1 1.2 The Most Precious Commodity: Energy 3 1.3 Cheap and Expensive 5 1.4 Federal Reserve 7 1.5 Transformation to a Low-Carbon Society 8 1.6 Commodity Costs 9 1.7 The Per Capita Factor 10 1.8 Demographics: India and China 12 1.9 Oil, and First- and Second-Generation Biofuels 13 1.10 Nuclear Energy 14 1.11 Eleven Megaforces 15 1.12 Resource Wars 17 1.13 Geopolitical Shift in Oil Production 18 1.14 Oil Companies, Production, and Transportation 18 2 First- and Second-Generation Biofuels 21 2.1 Second-Generation Requirements 21 2.2 Applications 22 2.3 First-Generation Feedstock: What Speaks against Biofuels of the First Generation? 22 2.4 Second-Generation Feedstock 24 2.5 Biomass 24 2.6 Bioethanol and Biodiesel Production 26 2.7 Biodiesel Refining 26 2.8 Benefits of Biodiesel 27 2.9 The Big Biofuel Inventors 28 2.9.1 Rudolf Diesel 28 2.9.2 Henry Ford 29 3 Biofuels Feedstock: Jatropha curcas 31 3.1 Characteristics 31 3.1.1 Plants in Marginal Growing Conditions 31 3.1.2 Nature Around the Equator 32 3.1.3 Plant Description 33 3.1.4 Where Does Jatropha Originate? 34 3.1.5 Properties 34 3.1.6 Toxicology 34 3.1.7 Whole Plant and Food/Fodder 35 3.1.8 Light in the Dark 35 3.1.9 Medicine 36 3.1.10 Pressing the Oil 36 3.1.11 Biokerosene 37 3.1.12 Breeding Objectives 37 3.1.13 Survival in Harsh Conditions 38 3.1.14 Breeding Method 38 3.1.15 Ecological Aspects 39 3.1.16 Agronomy 39 3.1.17 Harvesting and Man-Hours 40 3.1.18 Mechanical Harvesting 40 3.1.19 Managed and Contract Farming 40 3.1.20 Storage 41 3.1.21 Yield Comparisons and Research 41 3.1.22 Propagation Methods 42 3.1.23 Pricing 43 3.1.24 Jatropha Facts Related to Biodiesel 43 3.1.25 Pests and Diseases 44 3.1.26 Limitations of the Crop 44 3.1.27 Prospects 45 3.1.28 Research Needs 45 3.1.29 Cracking the Nut 45 3.2 Jatropha Products 46 3.2.1 Main Products 46 3.2.1.1 Glycerin 46 3.2.1.2 Medical Applications 46 3.2.1.3 Organic Fertilizer and Animal Feed 47 3.2.1.4 Insecticides and Pesticides 47 3.2.2 Byproducts 48 3.2.2.1 Active Carbon 48 3.2.2.2 Biochar 49 3.2.2.3 Woodpellets 49 3.2.2.4 Polyol 49 3.2.2.5 Paint 49 3.2.2.6 Electricity 49 3.2.2.7 Carbon Dioxide Collection 50 3.2.2.8 Smog Reduction in Chimneys 50 3.3 Advantages and Risks of Jatropha 51 3.3.1 Overview 51 3.3.2 Domestication 51 3.3.3 Potential Negative Effects 52 3.3.4 Variable Yields 53 3.3.5 Diesel Demand, Diesel Cars, and Demography 53 3.3.6 Jatropha Jet Fuel Demand 55 3.3.7 Significant Events 56 3.3.8 Yield Comparisons 56 3.3.9 Global Jatropha Demand 56 3.3.10 How Large is the Biokerosene Market? 57 3.3.11 Energy Security, US Military, and Fuel Costs 58 3.4 Negative Aspects and Risks 58 3.4.1 Jatropha in Ghana 58 3.4.2 Africa s Land Grab 59 3.4.3 More Examples of Land Grab Attempts [2] 60 3.5 Water Use 62 3.6 Invasiveness 63 3.7 Opinion of the UN FAO 64 3.8 Opinion of the World Bank 64 3.9 Code of Conduct 65 3.10 Summary of Jatropha 66 3.11 Where Does Jatropha Grow? 67 3.12 Genetic Improvement of J. curcas 68 References 69 4 Other Biofuel Feedstocks 71 4.1 Pongamia pinatta 71 4.2 Algae 72 4.2.1 Introduction 72 4.2.2 Yield 75 4.2.3 Benefits of Algae 76 4.2.4 Navy Orders 76 4.3 Palm Oil 77 4.3.1 Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil 77 4.3.2 Controversy 77 4.3.3 The Other Oil Spill 78 4.3.4 Clean Start 79 4.3.5 Threat from Facebook 81 4.3.6 Rainforests and Palm Oil 81 4.3.7 Sustainable Palm Oil [12] 83 4.4 Camelina 83 4.4.1 The Basics 83 4.4.2 Rotation with Wheat 84 4.4.3 Camelina as a Biofuel 84 4.4.4 Camelina Agronomy 85 4.4.5 Crop Potential 86 4.4.6 Shock Wave! 87 4.5 Crambe 88 4.5.1 Basics 88 4.5.2 EMPRAPA 89 4.6 Cheers! 90 4.7 Pennycress 90 4.8 Moringa 91 4.8.1 Planting: Seeds and Cuttings 92 4.8.2 Medicinal Applications 92 4.8.3 Biogas 93 4.9 Castor 93 4.10 Halophytes 93 4.11 Sugarcane 94 4.12 Miscanthus 94 4.13 Grass to Ethanol: Napier Grass 94 5 Cropping Methods 97 5.1 Intercropping and Double Cropping 97 5.2 Reliance Life Sciences 99 5.3 Nestle 99 6 Socially Responsible Investing 101 6.1 Principles 101 6.2 Practice: Jatropha curcas 101 6.3 Breaking the Cycle of Poverty 102 6.4 Food First 103 6.5 A Wider Context 104 6.6 Guatemala 104 6.7 Corporate Governance 105 6.7.1 Business 105 6.7.2 Bee Hives/Honey Harvesting 106 6.7.3 Company Community Committees 106 6.7.4 Education 106 6.7.5 Employment Opportunities 107 6.7.6 Farmland Preservation 107 6.7.7 Fire Control and Prevention 107 6.7.8 Healthcare 108 6.7.9 Hiring Women 108 6.7.10 Outgrower Program 108 6.7.11 Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation 109 6.7.12 Soil Fertility 109 7 Sustainability 111 8 Biomass 113 8.1 What Is Biomass? 113 8.2 Five Basic Categories 114 8.3 Benefits of Biomass 114 8.4 Feedstock of Biomass 115 8.4.1 Trees and Woodpellets 115 8.4.2 Woodchips 115 8.4.3 Palm Kernel Shells 116 8.4.4 Miscanthus Pellets 116 8.4.5 Agripellets 117 8.5 Biomass Potential in Brazil 118 8.6 Sustainability of Agripellets 119 8.7 Agripellets versus Coal and Lignite 120 8.8 Energy Density: Gigajoules per Tonne 120 8.9 Why Is Biomass in High Demand? 121 8.10 EU Environmental Regulations: Poland 124 8.11 The Challenges 125 9 Carbon Credits 127 9.1 Carbon is the Enemy 127 9.2 Jatropha Kerosene: A Monster Market Emerges 128 9.3 Carbon Reductions 130 9.4 Global Warming Around Us 130 9.5 Extreme Weather Patterns 131 10 Biofuels in Europe EU Policies 133 10.1 EU Policy in 2008 133 10.2 Heated Debates 133 10.3 National Policies 134 10.4 EU Rift in Biofuel Policy 135 10.5 Indirect Land-Use Change 136 10.6 Where Do We Stand Now? 136 11 Biofuels in the United States 137 11.1 Biomass Demand in the United States 137 11.2 Second-Generation Biofuels for the United States 138 11.3 A Growing Shortage of Domestic Oil Production 139 11.4 Fuel Use at the USDA 140 11.5 Partnership with the FAA 140 12 Biofuels in China 141 12.1 Clean Energy? Go to China 141 12.2 China is Going Green 142 12.3 China s 12th 5-Year Plan 143 12.4 Inclusive Growth 143 12.5 The Beneficiaries 144 12.6 China s Energy Consumption 145 12.7 Staggering Car Sales Numbers 146 12.8 China s Diesel Pricing Mechanism 149 12.9 China United States Biofuel Pact 150 12.10 China s Biofuels Expansion 151 12.10.1 2007 151 12.10.2 2010 151 12.10.3 An Area of 13 Million Hectares 152 12.10.4 Barren Lands in Southwest China 154 12.10.5 Hainan 154 12.10.6 Biodiesel Refineries 155 12.10.7 Poverty and Jatropha 156 12.10.8 Subsidies 157 12.10.9 Tax Exemptions for Biodiesel 158 13 Biofuels in Brazil 159 13.1 Introduction: Biofuel Industry Leader 159 13.2 Comparison with the United States 160 13.3 What is Driving the Urgency in Renewable Jet Fuel? 160 13.4 Biofuels from Sugarcane 160 13.5 Sugar Production 161 13.6 Ethanol Production and Flex-Fuel Cars 162 13.7 Bagasse, Bioelectricity, and Biofuels 162 13.8 Flex-Fuel Biofuel 163 13.9 Fuel Consumption 163 13.10 Greenhouse Gas Reductions 164 13.11 Energy Balance 165 13.12 Sugarcane for Biofuels 165 13.13 Sugarcane Straw: A Growth Opportunity 166 13.14 Bioplastics 166 13.15 Biofuels and Public Health 167 13.16 Cautionary Notes 167 13.17 The Bottom Line 168 14 Biofuels and Biomass in Africa 169 14.1 Dependency on Fossil Fuels 169 14.2 Africa s Potential 170 14.3 Three African Examples 171 14.3.1 Ghana 171 14.3.2 Ethiopia 171 14.3.3 Nigeria 172 15 General Aviation and Biofuels 173 15.1 Important Aviation Facts 173 15.2 Carbon Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions 173 15.3 Biofuels Providing Diversified Supply 174 15.4 Lifecycle of Carbon Dioxide 174 15.5 Green Aviation 175 15.6 Why Use Biokerosene? 176 15.7 Global Emissions of Carbon Dioxide 176 15.8 Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group 178 16 Aviation and Carbon Credits 179 16.1 Greenhouse Gases 179 16.2 EU Emission Trading Scheme 179 16.3 Cap and Trade 180 16.4 Carbon in Chains 180 16.5 Biokerosene Targets 181 17 Biokerosene 183 17.1 Airline Industry Lifts Biofuel Development 183 17.2 Safety 184 17.3 Ready for Take-Off A Monster Market in the Making: Aviation Biofuels 184 17.4 Refining 185 17.4.1 Biodiesel 186 17.4.2 Biokerosene 186 17.4.2.1 Hydrogenation 186 17.4.2.2 Fischer Tropsch Process 187 17.4.2.3 Nanoemulsion 188 17.5 Benefits 188 17.6 Jet Fuel Standards 189 17.7 Certification of Biofuels 189 17.8 ASTM 190 17.9 Intensive Testing 190 18 Fermenting Fuels 193 18.1 New Generation 193 18.2 What are Hydrocarbons? 193 18.3 What are Enzymes? 193 18.4 What are Drop-In Fuels ? 194 18.5 Converting Feedstock into Fuels 194 18.6 Cellulosic Ethanol 194 18.7 Biokerosene 196 19 Airline Test Results with Biofuels 197 19.1 Air New Zealand 197 19.2 Qatar Airways 198 19.3 Japan Airlines Test Flight Biofuels Tested: Jatropha, Camelina, and Algae 198 19.4 KLM Biofuel Tested: Camelina 199 19.5 Continental Airlines 199 19.6 TAM 200 19.7 British Airways 201 19.8 The Milestone: Lufthansa s Daily Flights 202 19.9 Cathay Pacific 203 19.10 Air China 205 19.11 Alaska Airlines 205 19.12 Aeromexico: First Transatlantic Biofuel Flight 206 20 Investment Opportunities 207 20.1 The Opportunity of a Lifetime 207 20.2 Eight Ways to Invest in Biofuels and Biomass 208 20.2.1 Agricultural Land 208 20.2.2 Invest in Trees 209 20.2.3 Start Your Own Plantation 209 20.2.4 Your own Biofuel/Biomass Production Company 210 20.2.5 Invest in Private Equity Funds 211 20.2.6 Biofuel Companies 211 20.2.6.1 Introduction 212 20.2.6.2 Company List 212 20.2.7 Mother Earth Biokersene Index 220 20.2.8 Managed Account 221 20.3 Investments Check-Up 221 21 Jatropha Projects, Research, and Joint Ventures 223 21.1 Waterland 223 21.2 KUOSOL: Repsol and KUO 224 21.3 SG Biofuels and Bunge 224 21.4 Shell and Brazil s Cosan 225 21.5 JOil 225 21.6 Others 226 22 The Future 227 22.1 Conclusions 227 22.2 From Nuclear to Renewable Energies 227 22.3 The Future of Waste 228 22.4 Future of Jatropha Feedstock 230 22.5 Future of Sugarcane 231 22.6 Low-Carbon Economy 232 22.7 Zero-Waste Economy 232 22.8 Our World in 2030 233 Glossary 235 Index 239

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527332908
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 272
  • ID: 9783527332908
  • weight: 748
  • ISBN10: 3527332901

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  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
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