This book covers the fundamentals, theory, design, fabrication, characterization, and application of self-healing polymers and polymer composites. Innovative routes that correlate materials chemistry to the self-healing functionality are summarized for future industrial use. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize integration of existing techniques and / or novel synthetic approaches for target-oriented materials design and fabrication. With this book, experienced readers will gain a comprehensive view of the emerging field, while new researchers will understand the framework for creating new materials or new applications.
MING QIU ZHANG has over twenty-eight years of systematic experience in polymers, polymer blends, and polymer composites. He serves as a member of Asian-Australasian Association for Composite Materials (AACM) Council and the standing council of Chinese Society for Composites, as well as President of Guangdong Society for Composites. In 1997, he received the prestigious fellowship from the Natural Science Foundation of China for Outstanding Young Scientists; and in 2005, the Li Ka Shing Foundation and the Ministry of Education of China selected him as a Cheung Kong Scholar. In addition, Professor Zhang is on the editorial board of eight scientific journals and holds forty-three patents. MIN ZHI RONG obtained his PhD degree in polymer chemistry and physics in 1994 in Zhongshan University. Before that, he was a researcher and lecturer in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University. His main interests are focused on thermosetting/thermoplastic blends, polymeric functional materials, structure of polymer networks, polymeric nanocomposites, natural fiber composites, and self-healing of polymeric materials. Among his many professional accolades, Professor Rong won the 2007 Prize for Achievements in Natural Science Research for his work on polymer nanocomposites awarded by the Ministry of Education of China. Along with having been published in about 180 journal papers and book chapters, Professor Rong also holds thirty-five patents.
Preface. 1 Basics of Self-Healing: State of the Art. 1.1 Background. 1.1.1 Adhesive Bonding for Healing Thermosetting Materials. 1.1.2 Fusion Bonding for Healing Thermoplastic Materials. 1.1.3 Bioinspired Self-Healing. 1.2 Intrinsic Self-Healing. 1.2.1 Self-Healing Based on Physical Interactions. 1.2.2 Self-Healing Based on Chemical Interactions. 1.2.3 Self-Healing Based on Supramolecular Interactions. 1.3 Extrinsic Self-Healing. 1.3.1 Self-Healing in Terms of Healant Loaded Pipelines. 1.3.2 Self-Healing in Terms of Healant Loaded Microcapsules. 1.4 Insights for Future Work. References. 2 Theoretical Consideration and Modeling. 2.1 Molecular Mechanisms. 2.1.1 Self-Healing Below Glass Transition Temperature. 2.1.2 Self-Healing Above Glass Transition Temperature. 2.2 Healing Modeling. 2.2.1 Percolation Modeling. 2.2.2 Continuum and Molecular-Level Modeling of Fatigue Crack Retardation. 2.2.3 Continuum Damage and Healing Mechanics. 2.2.4 Discrete Element Modeling and Numerical Study. 2.3 Design of Self-Healing Composites. 2.3.1 Entropy Driven Self-Assembly of Nanoparticles. 2.3.2 Optimization of Microvascular Networks. 2.4 Concluding Remarks. References. 3 Extrinsic Self-Healing via Addition Polymerization. 3.1 Design and Selection of Healing System. 3.2 Microencapsulation of Mercaptan and Epoxy by in situ Polymerization. 3.2.1 Microencapsulation of Mercaptan. 3.2.2 Microencapsulation of Epoxy. 3.3 Characterization of Self-Healing Functionality. 3.3.1 Self-Healing Epoxy Materials with Embedded Dual Encapsulated Healant: Healing of Crack Due to Monotonic Fracture. 3.3.2 Factors Related to Performance Improvement. 3.3.3 Self-Healing Epoxy Materials with Embedded Dual Encapsulated Healant: Healing of Fatigue Crack. 3.3.4 Self-Healing Epoxy/Glass Fabric Composites with Embedded Dual Encapsulated Healant: Healing of Impact Damage. 3.4 Concluding Remarks. References. 4 Extrinsic Self-Healing via Cationic Polymerization. 4.1 Microencapsulation of Epoxy by UV Irradiation-Induced Interfacial Copolymerization. 4.2 Encapsulation of Boron-Containing Curing Agent. 4.2.1 Loading Boron-Containing Curing Agent onto Porous Media. 4.2.2 Microencapsulation of Boron-Containing Curing Agent via Hollow Capsules Approach. 4.3 Characterization of Self-Healing Functionality. 4.3.1 Self-Healing Epoxy Materials with Embedded Epoxy-Loaded Microcapsules and (C2H5)2O*BF3-Loaded Sisal. 4.3.2 Self-Healing Epoxy Materials with Embedded Dual Encapsulated Healant. 4.4 Concluding Remarks. References. 5 Extrinsic Self-Healing via Anionic Polymerization. 5.1 Preparation of Epoxy-Loaded Microcapsules and Latent Hardener. 5.1.1 Microencapsulation of Epoxy by in situ Condensation. 5.1.2 Preparation of Imidazole Latent Hardener. 5.2 Self-Healing Epoxy Materials with Embedded Epoxy-Loaded Microcapsules and Latent Hardener. 5.3 Self-Healing Epoxy/Woven Glass Fabric Composites with Embedded Epoxy-Loaded Microcapsules and Latent Hardener: Healing of Interlaminar Failure. 5.4 Durability of Healing Ability. 5.5 Self-Healing Epoxy/Woven Glass Fabric Composites with Embedded Epoxy-Loaded Microcapsules and Latent Hardener: Healing of Impact Damage. 5.6 Concluding Remarks. References. 6 Extrinsic Self-Healing via Miscellaneous Reactions. 6.1 Extrinsic Self-Healing via Nucleophilic Addition and Ring-Opening Reactions. 6.1.1 Microencapsulation of GMA by in situ Polymerization. 6.1.2 Self-Healing Epoxy Materials with Embedded Single-Component Healant. 6.2 Extrinsic Self-Healing via Living Polymerization. 6.2.1 Preparation of Living PMMA and Its Composites with GMA-Loaded Microcapsules. 6.2.2 Characterization of Self-Healing Functionality. 6.3 Extrinsic Self-Healing via Free Radical Polymerization. 6.3.1 Microencapsulation of Styrene and BPO. 6.3.2 Self-Healing Performance of Epoxy Filled with Dual Capsules. 6.4 Concluding Remarks. References. 7 Intrinsic Self-Healing via Diels-Alder Reaction. 7.1 Molecular Design and Synthesis. 7.1.1 Synthesis and Characterization of DGFA. 7.1.2 Reversibility of DA Bonds and Crack Remendability of DGFA Based Polymer. 7.1.3 Synthesis and Characterization of FGE. 7.1.4 Reversibility of DA Bonds and Crack Remendability of FGE-Based Polymer. 7.2 Blends of DGFA and FGE. 7.2.1 Reversibility of DA Bonds. 7.2.2 Crack Remendability of Cured DGFA/FGE Blends. 7.3 Concluding Remarks. References. 8 Applications. 8.1 Coatings and Films. 8.2 Elastomers. 8.3 Smart Composites. 8.4 Tires. 8.5 Concluding Remarks. References. Appendix: Nomenclature. Index.