Separation Process Principles with Applications Using Process Simulator, 4th Edition is the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the major separation operations in the chemical industry. The 4th edition focuses on using process simulators to design separation processes and prepares readers for professional practice. Completely rewritten to enhance clarity, this fourth edition provides engineers with a strong understanding of the field. With the help of an additional co-author, the text presents new information on bioseparations throughout the chapters. A new chapter on mechanical separations covers settling, filtration and centrifugation including mechanical separations in biotechnology and cell lysis. Boxes help highlight fundamental equations. Numerous new examples and exercises are integrated throughout as well.
About the Authors Preface to the Fourth Edition Nomenclature Dimensions and Units Chapter 1 Separation Processes 1.0 Instructional Objectives 1.1 Industrial Chemical Processes 1.2 Basic Separation Techniques 1.3 O Separations by Phase Creation 1.4 O Separations by Phase Addition 1.5 O Separations by Barrier 1.6 O Separations by External Field or Gradient 1.7 Brief Comparison of Common Separation Operations 1.8 Separation Processes, Product Purity, Component Recovery, and Separation Sequences Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 2 Thermodynamics of Separation Operations 2.0 Instructional Objectives 2.1 Phase Equilibria 2.2 Ideal-Gas, Ideal-Liquid-Solution Model 2.3 O Graphical Representation of Thermodynamic Properties 2.4 O Nonideal Thermodynamic Property Models 2.5 O P-v-T Equation-of-State (EOS) Models 2.6 O Highly Nonideal Liquid Solutions 2.7 O Gibbs Excess Free Energy (gE) Models 2.8 O Predictive Models 2.9 O Electrolyte Solution Models 2.10 O Polymer Solution Models 2.11 Selecting an Appropriate Model 2.12 Exergy and Second-Law Analysis Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 3 Mass Transfer and Diffusion 3.0 Instructional Objectives 3.1 Steady-State, Ordinary Molecular Diffusion 3.2 Diffusion Coefficients (Diffusivities) 3.3 Steady- and Unsteady-State Mass Transfer Through Stationary Media 3.4 Mass Transfer in Laminar Flow 3.5 Mass Transfer in Turbulent Flow 3.6 Models for Mass Transfer in Fluids with a Fluid Fluid Interface 3.7 Two-Film Theory and Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 4 Single Equilibrium Stages and Flash Calculations 4.0 Instructional Objectives 4.1 Gibbs Phase Rule and Degrees of Freedom 4.2 Binary Vapor Liquid Systems at Equilibrium 4.3 Equilibrium Two-Phase Flash Calculations 4.4 Ternary Liquid Liquid Systems at Equilibrium 4.5 O Multicomponent Liquid Liquid Systems 4.6 Liquid Solid Systems 4.7 Gas Liquid Systems 4.8 Gas Solid Systems 4.9 Three-Phase Equilibrium Systems Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 5 Multistage Cascades and Hybrid Systems 5.0 Instructional Objectives 5.1 Cascade Configurations 5.2 Single-Section, Liquid Liquid Extraction Cascades 5.3 Two-Section Distillation Cascades 5.4 O Membrane Cascades 5.5 O Hybrid Systems 5.6 Degrees of Freedom and Specifications for Cascades Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 6 Absorption and Stripping 6.0 Instructional Objectives 6.1 O Equipment for Vapor-Liquid Separations 6.2 O General Design Considerations 6.3 Graphical Method for Trayed Towers 6.4 Kremser Group Method for Multicomponent Absorption and Stripping 6.5 Stage Efficiency and Column Height for Trayed Columns 6.6 Flooding, Column Diameter, and Tray Layout for Trayed Columns 6.7 Rate-Based Method for Packed Columns 6.8 Packed-Column Liquid Holdup, Diameter, Flooding, Pressure Drop, and Mass-Transfer Efficiency 6.9 Reactive (Chemical) Absorption Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 7 Distillation of Binary Mixtures 7.0 Instructional Objectives 7.1 O Equipment and Design Considerations 7.2 McCabe Thiele Graphical Method for Trayed Towers 7.3 O Extensions of the McCabe-Thiele Method 7.4 Estimation of Tray Efficiency for Distillation 7.5 Column and Reflux Drum Diameters 7.6 Rate-Based Method for Packed Distillation Columns Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 8 Liquid Liquid Extraction with Ternary Systems 8.0 Instructional Objectives 8.1 O Equipment for Liquid-Liquid Extraction 8.2 O General Design Considerations 8.3 Hunter Nash Graphical Equilibrium-Stage Method 8.4 O Theory and Scale-Up of Extractor Performance Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 9 Approximate Methods for Multicomponent, Multistage Separations 9.0 Instructional Objectives 9.1 Fenske Underwood Gilliland (FUG) Method 9.2 Using the Shortcut (FUG) method with Process Simulators Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 10 Equilibrium-Based Methods for Multicomponent Absorption, Stripping, Distillation, and Extraction 10.0 Instructional Objectives 10.1 Simple Model for a Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Stage 10.2 Evolution of Methods for Solving the Mesh Equations 10.3 Strategies for Applying Process-Simulator Methods 10.4 Main Mathematical Procedures 10.5 Bubble-Point (BP) and Sum-Rates (SR) Methods 10.6 Simultaneous-Correction Method 10.7 Inside-Out Method 10.8 Rigorous Methods for Liquid-Liquid Extraction Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 11 Enhanced Distillation and Supercritical Extraction 11.0 Instructional Objectives 11.1 Use of Triangular Graphs 11.2 Extractive Distillation 11.3 Salt Distillation 11.4 Pressure-Swing Distillation 11.5 Homogeneous Azeotropic Distillation 11.6 Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation 11.7 Reactive Distillation 11.8 Supercritical-Fluid Extraction Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 12 Rate-Based Models for Vapor-Liquid Separation Operations 12.0 Instructional Objectives 12.1 Rate-Based Model 12.2 Thermodynamic Properties and Transport-Rate Expressions 12.3 Methods for Estimating Transport Coefficients and Interfacial Area 456 12.4 Vapor and Liquid Flow Patterns 12.5 Method of Calculation Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 13 Batch Distillation 13.0 Instructional Objectives 13.1 Differential Distillation 13.2 Binary Batch Rectification 13.3 Batch Stripping and Complex Batch Distillation 13.4 Effect of Liquid Holdup 13.5 Stage-by-Stage Methods for Batch Rectification 13.6 Intermediate-Cut Strategy 13.7 Optimal Control by Variation of Reflux Ratio Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 14 Membrane Separations 14.0 Instructional Objectives 14.1 O Membrane Materials 14.2 O Membrane Modules 14.3 Mass Transfer in Membranes 14.4 Dialysis 14.5 O Electrodialysis 14.6 Reverse Osmosis 14.7 Gas Permeation 14.8 O Pervaporation Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises Chapter 15 Adsorption, Ion Exchange, and Chromatography 15.0 Instructional Objectives 15.1 Sorbents 15.2 Equilibrium Considerations 15.3 Kinetic and Transport Rate Considerations 15.4 O Equipment for Sorption Systems 15.5 Slurry and Fixed-Bed Adsorption Systems 15.6 Continuous, Countercurrent Adsorption Systems 15.7 O Ion-Exchange Cycle 15.8 Chromatographic Separations Nomenclature Summary References Study Questions Exercises