HIV/AIDS is much too complex a phenomenon to be understood only by reference to common sense and ethical codes. This book presents the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework in a well-researched and accessible manner to ensure that the most important considerations are recognized and incorporated.
This book argues that HIV/AIDS policies need to be evidence based and that CBA is the best way to assemble and summarize the evidence. The work explains why CBA is needed and highlights a number of myths, misinformation and counterintuitive results in the field, and critiques the Millennium Development Goals approach. It also presents HIV/AIDS as a hunger issue in sub-Saharan Africa and as a sexual transmission problem in the US. The roles of nutrition, income, education, religion, agricultural policy, concurrency and sexual networks are all examined. Robert Brent explains the main cost-benefit methods and applications, including threshold analysis, willingness to pay, cost minimization, cost-effectiveness, human capital theory and the value of a statistical life. Applications cover female education, possible vaccines, condoms, and various forms of treatment. He concludes by explaining how CBA incorporates social considerations such as equity.
With timely and controversial discussions, this book will be read with interest by AIDS activists, NGO members, policy-makers and public officials, as well as being accessible to non-economists interested in the subject of HIV/AIDS.
Robert J. Brent, Professor of Economics, Fordham University, New York, US
Contents: Preface PART I: WHY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IS NEEDED TO SET HIV/AIDS PRIORITIES 1. Introduction to the Book 2. Why Not Just Simply do What is Right and Try to Save Lives? 3. Myths and Misinformation 4. Counterintuitive Results 5. What is Wrong with Setting any Targets? 6. What is Wrong with Setting the Particular MDG Targets? 7. Cost-Benefit Analysis 101 8. Cost-Benefit Analysis 201 PART II: HIV/AIDS AS A HUNGER AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ISSUE 9. Introduction to Part II 10. HIV and Hunger 11. Nutrition and HIV at the Individual Level 12. Nutrition and HIV at the Country Level 13. Income as a Factor Raising HIV Rates 14. Education as a Factor Raising HIV Rates 15. Islam as a Factor Lowering HIV Rates 16. Impact of HIV on Agricultural Households 17. Agricultural Policy and HIV Interventions 18. Sex and HIV I: The Role of Transmission 19. Sex and HIV II: The Role of Concurrency 20. Sex and HIV III: The Role of Networks PART III: COST-BENEFIT METHODS AND APPLICATIONS 21. Introduction to Part III 22. Threshold Analysis Theory 23. Threshold Analysis Practice: The Effectiveness of HIV Education 24. Threshold Analysis Practice: The Benefits of Avoiding HIV 25. Threshold Analysis Practice: The Costs of a Possible HIV/AIDS Vaccine 26. Willingness to Pay Theory 27. Willingness to Pay Practice: The Benefits of Condoms 28. Cost Minimization Theory 29. Cost Minimization Practice: The Costs of Treating TB 30. Cost-Effectiveness Theory 31. Cost-Effectiveness Practice: The Benefits of ARVs 32. Human Capital Theory 33. Human Capital Practice: The Benefits of Female Primary Education 34. Value of a Statistical Life Theory 35. Value of a Statistical Life Practice: The Benefits of VCT PART IV: SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CBA 36. Introduction to IV 37. Commodification: Everything is Seen as a Commodity to be Bought and Sold 38. What is So "Social" About CBA? Fundamentals of CBA 39. Social and Private Perspectives in CBA 40. CBA and Equity I: Allowing for Ability to Pay 41. CBA and Equity II: Allocating by Time and Other Non-Price Methods 42. Conclusions I: How Not to Set Priorities for HIV 43. Conclusions II: Using CBA to Set Priorities for HIV References Index