In 2000, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) produced a report Calling the Shots: Immunization Finance Policies and Practices (IOM, 2000a) that illustrated the uncertainties and instability of the public health infrastructure that supports U.S. immunization programs. The IOM report proposed several strategies to address these concerns and to strengthen the immunization infrastructure. In March 2002, a group of 50 health officials, public health experts, health care providers, health plan representatives, health care purchasers, and community leaders met at The National Academies in Washington, DC to explore the implications of the IOM findings and recommendations for the federal and state governments. Private health plans and business sector representatives also participated in the meeting to discuss their role in fostering high levels of immunization coverage. The one-day workshop was the fourth and last in a series of meetings organized by IOM with support from the CDC to foster informed discussions about future financing strategies for immunization and the public health infrastructure. This report of the Washington, DC workshop summarizes the findings of the IOM study, reviews the implementation of the IOM recommendations, and highlights continuing immunization finance challenges for the nation as a whole as well as state and local health departments.