The change from a hunting-gathering lifestyle to one dependent upon farming constitutes a truly 'revolutionary' event in the human career. Most archaeologists agree that how ancient people organized their work and family groups was crucial to the success of early attempts at farming. Yet little serious attention has been paid to the social organization of labor in the prehistoric past. This book addresses that lacuna by investigating sexual divisions of labor. As a case study, Peterson chose the southern Levant of West Asia, where the world's first farming societies emerged some 10,000 years ago. Shattering long held assumptions about women's work that lead to generalizations about gender roles, Peterson shows that gender studies can be both scientific and thoroughly grounded in feminist theory.
Jane Peterson is assistant professor of anthropology at Marquette University.
Part 1 Foreword Part 2 Chapter 1: An Investigation of Labor Patterns Chapter 3 Work Patterns and Sexual Divisions: Historical Background Chapter 4 Social Models in Archaeology: Past and Future Chapter 5 Sex and Gender Terminology Chapter 6 Study Area and Chronology Chapter 7 Organizations Part 8 Chapter 2: Archaeological Evidence from the Southern Levant Chapter 9 Natufian Period Chapter 10 Pre-Pottery Neolithic Period Chapter 12 Chalcolithic Period Chapter 13 Early Bronze I Period Chapter 14 Summary Part 15 Chapter 3: Markers of Occupational Stress Chapter 16 Historical Overview Chapter 17 Structural Changes Chapter 18 Joint Modification Chapter 19 Trauma Chapter 20 Tooth wear, Dental Trauma, and Caries Chapter 21 Musculoskeletal Stress Markers Chapter 22 Summary Part 23 Chapter 4: Occupational Evidence and Hypotheses From the Levant Chapter 24 Extant Studies Chapter 25 Chronological Summary Chapter 26 Conclusions Part 27 Chapter 5: New Musculoskeletal Stress Markers Chapter 28 Materials Chapter 29 Methods Chapter 30 Analytical Techniques Chapter 31 Natufian Results Chapter 32 Neolithic Results Chapter 33 Early Bronze I Results Part 34 Chapter 6: Modeling Changing Labor Scenarios Chapter 35 Integrating MSM with previous activity reconstructions Chapter 36 Activities and Performance Spaces Chapter 37 Models of Sexual Labor Changes with the Advent of Farming Chapter 38 An Engendered Model Part 39 Bibliography Part 40 Index Part 41 About the Author Chapter 42 Neolithic Period