The works of William Shakespeare have long been embraced by communist and socialist governments. One of the central cultural debates of the Soviet period concerned repertoire, including the usefulness and function of pre-revolutionary drama for the New Man and the New Society. Shakespeare survived the byzantine twists and turns of Soviet cultural politics by becoming established early as the Great Realist whose works should be studied, translated, and emulated. This view of Shakespeare as a humanist and realist was transferred to a host of other countries including East Germany, Hungary, Poland, China, and Cuba after the Second World War. Shakespeare in the Worlds of Communism and Socialism traces the reception of Shakespeare from 1917 to 2002 and addresses the relationship of Shakespeare to Marxist and communist ideology. Irena R. Makaryk and Joseph G. Price have brought together an internationally-renowned group of theatre historians, practitioners, and scholars to examine the extraordinary conjunction of Shakespeare and ideology during a fascinating period of twentieth-century history.
Roughly historical in their arrangement, the essays in this collection suggest the complicated and convoluted trajectory of Shakespeare's reputation. The general theme that emerges from this study is the deeply ambivalent nature of communist Shakespeare who, like Feste's 'chev'ril glove,' often simultaneously served and subverted the official ideology. Contributors: Alexey Bartoshevitch Laura Raidonis Bates Maria Clara Versiani Galery Lawrence Guntner Werner Habicht Maik Hamburger Martin Hilsk Krystyna Kujawinska-Courtney Irena R. Makaryk Zolt n M rkus Sharon O'Dair Arkady Ostrovsky Joseph G. Price Laurence Senelick Shu-hua Wang Robert Weimann Xiao Yang Zhang
Irena R. Makaryk is a professor in the Department of English at the University of Ottawa. Joseph G. Price is a professor emeritus in the Department of English at Pennsylvania State University.
List of Illustrations Acknowledgments A Note on Slavic Transliteration Introduction: When Worlds Collide: Shakespeare and Communisms IRENA R. MAKARYK and JOSEPH G. PRICE PART ONE: SHAKESPEARE IN FLUX: 1917 TO THE 1930s Performance and Ideology: Shakespeare in 1920s Ukraine IRENA R. MAKARYK Shakespeare and the Working Man: Communist Applications during Nationalist Periods in Latvia LAURA RAIDONIS BATES Shakespeare as a Founding Father of Socialist Realism: The Soviet Affair with Shakespeare ARKADY OSTROVSKY A Five-Year Plan for The Taming of the Shrew lAURENCE SENELICK The Forest of Arden in Stalin's Russia: Shakespeare's Comedies in the Soviet Theatre of the Thirties ALEXEY BARTOSHEVITCH PART TWO: WORLD WAR, COLD WAR, AND THE GREAT DIVIDE Wartime Hamlet IRENA R. MAKARYK 'Thus conscience doth make cowards of us all': New Documentation on the Okhlopkov Hamlet LAURENCE SENELICK Shakespeare and the Berlin Wall WERNER HABICHT In Search of a Socialist Shakespeare: Hamlet on East German Stages LAWRENCE GUNTNER Shakespeare the Politicizer: Two Notable Stagings in East Germany MAIK HAMBURGER PART THREE: NATIONAL AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY Translations of Politics / Politics of Translation: Czech Experience MARTIN HILSKY Krystyna Skuszanka's Shakespeare of Political Allusions and Metaphors in Communist Poland KRYSTYNA KUJAWINB SKA COURTNEY War, Lechery, and Goulash Communism: Troilus and Cressida in Socialist Hungary ZOLTAN MARKUS The Chinese Vision of Shakespeare (from 1950 to 1990): Marxism and Socialism XIAO YANG ZHANG From Maoism to (Post) Modernism: Hamlet in Communist China SHUHUA WANG PART FOUR: THEORIZING MARXIST SHAKESPEARES Caliban/Cannibal/Carnival: Cuban Articulations of Shakespeare's The Tempest MARIA CLARA VERSIANI GALERY Ideology and Performance in East German Versions of Shakespeare ROBERT WEIMANN Marx Manque: A Brief History of Marxist Shakespeare Criticism in North America, ca. 1980-ca. 2000 349 SHARON O'DAIR Contributors Index Index of Shakespearean Plays