Shaping the Developing World: The West, the South, and the Natural World

Shaping the Developing World: The West, the South, and the Natural World

By: Andy Baker (author)Paperback

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Interdisciplinary in his scope, Andy Baker adeptly uses a threefold framework of the West, the South, and the Natural World to systematically break down the factors contributing to underdevelopment-from the legacies of colonialism and deficient domestic institutions, to the effects of globalization and the impact of geography and environmental degradation. Students learn to think like social scientists while coming to understand the interplay of influences on a nation's political, economic, and social development. Country case studies at the end of each chapter offer an ideal testing ground for applying the threefold framework, testing explanations with empirical data. Critical thinking questions then encourage students to weigh different theoretical arguments. A series of well-designed features develop students' understanding of economic indicators as well as highlight the ways development work is done in the field. Shaping the Developing World presents high-quality academic analysis and the latest scholarship in a format that's engaging, informative, and above all, accessible.

About Author

Andy Baker is Associate Professor of Political Science and Faculty Associate in the Institute of Behavioral Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. He teaches courses on comparative politics, political economy, global development, and African and Latin American politics. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001. Andy conducts research on Latin American politics, international political economy, and mass political behavior. In 2009, he published a book with Cambridge University Press, entitled The Market and the Masses in Latin America: Policy Reform and Consumption in Liberalizing Economies, on the nature and causes of citizens' attitudes toward free-market policies in 18 Latin American nations. Andy has also published articles in American Journal of Political Science, World Politics, Latin American Research Review, and Electoral Studies. His current research projects focus on the Latin American Left, public opinion toward foreign aid in donor countries, and the impact of globalization on economic insecurity in the developing world.


PART I: INTRODUCTION1. Underdevelopment and Diversity in the Global South Defining the Developing World Naming the Developing World Delineating the Developing World Economic, Social, and Political Characteristics Economic Characteristics Social Characteristics Political Characteristics A Brief History of Economic Development The Pre-Industrial Eras The Industrial Revolution Modern Economic Growth in the Developing World Goals and Organization: Who or What Causes Global Poverty? Causes of Underdevelopment: A Framework Organization of the Book Case Study: Why Is the Democratic Republic of Congo the Poorest Country on Earth? The South: Kleptocracy and Cultural Fragmentation The West: Stolen Aid, Colonial Abuses, and Slavery The Natural World: Geography and the Resource Curse Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources2. Human Development and Underdevelopment Defining Human Development The Human Development Approach The Complex Relationship between Economic and Human Development Health Snapshot: Description and Causes of the Developing World's Shortcomings Key Health Indicators: Life Expectancy and Child Mortality The Immediate Cause of Poor Health Outcomes Health Trends: Tracking Improvements in LDCs through Time Longer Lives Causes of Convergence: The Declining Cost of Good Health Education Snapshot: The Nature and Causes of the Developing World's Deficit Key Education Indicators: Attainment and Achievement The Immediate Causes of Poor Educational Outcomes Education Trends: Tracking Improvements in LDCs through Time Higher Enrollments and Better Quality Causes of Convergence: Better Government and Parental Commitment Case Study: What Are India's Failures and Successes in Human Development? Health and Education Challenges Health and Education Successes Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources3. The Benefits and Costs of Economic Development The Cultural Costs of Development The Cost: The Westernization and Homogenization of Cultures The Cost: Deteriorations in Social Connectedness and Personal Character The Response: Prosperity as a Universal Desire The Response: Minimal or Beneficial Cultural Change The Equity Costs of Development The Cost: Deepening Global Inequality The Cost: Deepening Domestic Inequalities The Response: The Complicated Relationship between Development and Inequality The Environmental Costs of Development The Cost: Environmental Degradation The Response: The Benefits of Development for the Environment The Psychological Costs of Development The Cost: Insecurity, Alienation, and Unhappiness The Response: Revisiting the Ethics and Evidence on Happiness Case Study: Has Economic Growth Brought Happiness to China? The Gains The Costs Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web ResourcesPART II: THE WEST: INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTS4. Slavery and Colonialism The Atlantic Slave Trade The Triangular Trade Features of the Trade in Africa Features of the Trade in Latin America Causes of Underdevelopment: The Long-Term Damage of Slavery Consequences for Africa Consequences for Latin America and the Caribbean Critique: Questioning the Magnitude of Slavery's Effects Western Colonialism The Importance of the Western Colonial Era for the Contemporary South A Brief History of the Colonial Era Causes of Underdevelopment: Western Colonialism's Consequences The Colonial Drain Colonialism's Institutional Legacy Colonialism's Cultural Legacy Critique of Colonial Legacy Arguments Case Study: Do Slavery and Colonialism Explain Nigeria's Development Failure? The West: Slavery and Colonialism's Consequences The South: Domestic Problems in Independent Nigeria The Natural World: The Burden of Geography and the Paradox of Oil Wealth Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources5. Globalization and Neocolonialism From the First Global Century to Import Substitution The First Global Century The ISI Phase Export Promotion Causes of Underdevelopment: Dependency and Other Early Theories of Global Exploitation Latin American Structuralism Dependency Theory World Systems Theory Falling Behind in the First Global Century Critiques of Structuralism, Dependency Theory, and WST Reintegrating the Globe Trade Liberalization Capital Market Liberalization Changing Migration Flows Remaining Barriers Causes of Underdevelopment: Newer Concerns about Globalization Deindustrialization Sweatshops and the Race to the Bottom Volatile Capital Flows Foreign Debt Brain Drain Critique: Defending Globalization The Benefits of Free Trade Labor Exploitation or Enrichment? The Nature of Foreign Debt Brain Gain Case Study: Is Neocolonialism Why Brazil Is Always the "Country of the Future"? The West: Failures of Openness The South: Shortcomings of Domestic Institutions The Natural World: The Illusion of Abundance Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources6. Foreign Aid and the Bretton Woods Institutions Foreign Aid Understanding Key Concepts and Players in the Aid Regime A Brief History of Foreign Aid Causes of Underdevelopment: The Case for Aid Skepticism Donor Motives Donor Paternalism and Lack of Accountability Donor Fragmentation and Aid Volatility Recipient Absorptive Capacity and Governance Recipient Economic Problems Defending Foreign Aid and Its Record Theoretical Defenses Foreign Aid's Many Successes The Aid Trickle Learning from Past Mistakes The Bretton Woods Institutions: The IMF and World Bank A Brief History of the IMF and World Bank Causes of Underdevelopment: Imposing Market Fundamentalism Foisting Capitalism on the Developing World Other Criticisms Critique: Defending the Bretton Woods Institutions Loans and Conditionalities as a Choice The Ethics of Conditionalities The Case for Market Policies Case Study: Has Foreign Aid Made Pakistan Poorer? The West: The Failures of Aid and the IMF The South: The Worst of Continuity and Change The Natural World: The Paradox of Flooding amidst Dryness Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web ResourcesPART III: THE SOUTH: DOMESTIC FACTORS7. Culture and Identity Understanding Culture and Social Identity Social Identity Other Cultural Traits Causes of Underdevelopment: The Culturalist School Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic Modernization Theory Social Capital and Trust Religion and Natural Culture Critique of Culturalist Claims Culture as Consequence, Not Cause Mischaracterizing Culture in LDCs Mixed Evidence Cultural Relativism Causes of Underdevelopment: The Costs of Cultural Diversity Underprovision of Public Goods and Fragmented Markets Poor Governance and Conflict Stereotype Threat Critique: Diversity as Consequence, Not Cause Case Study: Are Iraqis Poor Because of Islam and Its Ethnic Cleavages? The South: Islam and Sectarian Divisions The West: The British Mandate and War with the United States The Natural World: Oil and Sand Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources8. States, Markets, and Development Models State-Led Development State-Led Development in Thought State-Led Development in Practice Causes of Underdevelopment: Failures of the State-Led Model Critique: Successes of State-Led Development Socialism Marxist Thought Socialism in Practice Causes of Underdevelopment: Failures of Socialism Critique: Socialism's Successes The Market-Oriented Strategy Neoclassical Economic Thought The Market-Oriented Strategy in Practice Causes of Underdevelopment: Shortcomings of the Market-Oriented Strategy Disappointing Results State Capitalism Critique: Successes of the Washington Consensus Success Stories Debating State Capitalism Case Study: Did India's Postcolonial Development Model Delay Its Economic Rise? The South: India's State-Led Development Model The West: Exploiting the "Jewel in the British Crown" The Natural World: Topography and Transport Costs Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources9. Economic Institutions and Informality Property Markets and Informal Ownership Urban Slums and Rural Land Causes of Property Informality Causes of Underdevelopment: Informal Property Markets New Institutional Economics and Property Rights Dead Capital Critique: Is Formality Worth It? Informal Work, Firms, and Finance Labor and Business Informality Financial Services Causes of Underdevelopment: Challenges of Informal Firms and Finance The Drawbacks of Informal Work Shortcomings of Informal Finance Critique: Formalization as a False Solution Case Study: Does Informality Explain Peru's Delayed Development? The South: Informal Economic Activity The West: Spanish Colonialism and British Neocolonialism The Natural World: Pizarro Wins the Lottery Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources10. Political Institutions and Governance Political Regimes Democracy Authoritarianism Hybrid Regimes Political Instability and Regime Change The Relationship between Political Regimes and Prosperity Democracy's Third Wave The Judiciary and the Bureaucracy Rule of Law Corruption State Capacity Judicial and Bureaucratic Quality around the World Causes of Underdevelopment: Bad Political Institutions Extractive Institutions Inclusive Institutions as the Solution Critique of NIE Economic Development First The Authoritarian Advantage Mixed Evidence Case Study: Does China's Authoritarianism Explain Why It Is Poorer Than the West? The South: Serial Authoritarianism The West: A Century of Humiliation The Natural World: Inhospitable Terrain Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources11. Violence and State Failure Political and Criminal Violence Political Violence Criminal Violence State Failure Causes of Underdevelopment: The Costs of Violence and State Failure The Costs of Armed Conflict The Price of Criminal Violence Critique: Reconsidering the Costs of Violence Case Study: Is Somalia Poor because of Civil War? The South: Civil War in the World's Least Governed State The West: The Legacy of Foreign Intervention The Natural World: Climate and Nomadism Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources12. Gender Inequality Female Empowerment The Gender Earnings Gap The Gender Gap in Education The Gender Gap in Political Empowerment Causes of Underdevelopment: Disempowered Women and Girls Critiques of the Instrumentalist View Female Health, Physical Security, and Fertility Excess Female Mortality and Missing Women Gender-Based Violence Reproduction and Fertility Causes of Underdevelopment: High Fertility Critique: Doubting the Costs of High Fertility Case: Is Afghanistan's Treatment of Women the Cause of Its Poverty? The South: Mistreatment of Women and Girls The West: Legacy of a Global Pawn The Natural World: Dry, Mountainous, and Landlocked Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web ResourcesPART IV: THE NATURAL WORLD: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY13. Geography and Economic Prosperity Geographic Commonalities of the Developing World The Tropics Other Commonalities Causes of Underdevelopment: Physical Geography and Climate The Tropical Disadvantage Guns, Germs, and Steel Natural Barriers to Economic Exchange Critique of Geographical Determinism Critique of Jeffrey Sachs Critique of Jared Diamond Overcoming Distance The Resource Curse Causes of Underdevelopment: Natural Resources Dutch Disease and a Lack of Industry Effects on Politics Critique: A Resource Blessing? Case Study: Is Geography Destiny in Mexico? The Natural World: Mexico's Geographical Disadvantages The West: Colonial and Postcolonial Exploitation The South: Instability and Autocracy Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Reading Web Resources14. Environmental Change and Development Communal Environmental Problems Degradation of Natural Capital Why Community Environmental Problems Are Worse in LDCs Causes of Underdevelopment: A Malthusian Trap Critique: Recent History versus Neo-Malthusianism Climate Change and Development Causes of Underdevelopment: The Economic Burden of Climate Change Causes of Underdevelopment: The Economic Burden of Climate Change Case Study: Will Malthusian Traps End Indonesia's Rise? The Natural World: Indonesia's Malthusian Crisis? The South: Poor Government and Female Disempowerment The West: Pathologies of Globalization Thinking Critically about Development Key Terms Suggested Readings Web Resources

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781608718559
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 424
  • ID: 9781608718559
  • ISBN10: 1608718557

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