Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment

Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment

By: Sandra E. Shumway (editor)Hardback

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Description

Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment focuses primarily on the issues surrounding environmental sustainability of shellfish aquaculture. The chapters in this book provide readers with the most current data available on topics such as resource enhancement and habitat restoration. Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment is also an invaluable resource for those looking to develop and implement environmental best management practices. Edited one of the world's leading shellfish researchers and with contributions from around the world, Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment is the definitive source of information for this increasingly important topic. View the Executive Summary here: http://seagrant.uconn.edu/publications/aquaculture/execsumm.pdf

About Author

Sandra E. Shumway is a Research Professor in the Department of Marine Sciences, University of Connecticut.

Contents

List of Contributors xi Foreword xiii Preface xv 1 The role of shellfish farms in provision of ecosystem goods and services 3 Joao G. Ferreira, Anthony J.S. Hawkins, and Suzanne B. Bricker Introduction 3 Methods of study 6 Ecosystem goods: biomass production 13 Ecosystem services: environmental quality 17 Literature cited 26 2 Shellfish aquaculture and the environment: an industry perspective 33 William Dewey, Jonathan P. Davis, and Daniel C. Cheney Introduction 33 Shellfish farmers and harvesters history of water quality protection and stewardship roles 35 BMPs, the shellfish industry, and the role of available research 42 Conclusion 48 Literature cited 48 3 Molluscan shellfish aquaculture and best management practices 51 John A. Hargreaves Introduction 51 Ecosystem change and shellfish aquaculture 53 Classifi cation of impacts 53 BMPs 54 Assurance labeling 64 Pressures to participate in certifi cation programs 65 Perspectives on ecolabeling 67 Aquaculture certifi cation programs 68 Critique of bivalve shellfish ecolabeling efforts in the United States 70 Criticisms of certifi cation programs 73 Towards more meaningful labeling 75 Concluding remarks 77 Literature cited 78 4 Bivalve filter feeding: variability and limits of the aquaculture biofilter 81 Peter J. Cranford, J. Evan Ward, and Sandra E. Shumway Introduction 81 Constraints on maximum feeding activity 82 Shellfi sh feeding in nature 85 Emerging knowledge on ecosystem interactions with the bivalve biofilter 109 Conclusions 111 Literature cited 113 5 Trophic interactions between phytoplankton and bivalve aquaculture 125 Gary H. Wikfors The interdependence of bivalves and phytoplankton 125 Bivalve population density: farmed bivalves are naturally gregarious 127 Bivalves as consumers and cultivators of phytoplankton 127 Summary and prospects 130 Acknowledgments 131 Literature cited 131 6 The application of dynamic modeling to prediction of production carrying capacity in shellfi sh farming 135 Jon Grant and Ramon Filgueira Physical oceanographic models 139 Filtration and seston depletion 140 Single-box models 140 Higher-order models 142 Fully spatial models 143 Population-based models 145 Local models 146 Optimization 147 Application to management 148 Modeling environmental impact 149 Sustainability and ecosystem-based management 150 Literature cited 151 7 Bivalve shellfi sh aquaculture and eutrophication 155 JoAnn M. Burkholder and Sandra E. Shumway Summary 155 Introduction 156 Most commonly reported: localized changes associated with shellfi sh aquaculture 158 Interpretations from an ecosystem approach 179 Modeling efforts to assess relationships between bivalve aquaculture and eutrophication 187 Eutrophication of coastal waters from land-based nutrients 192 Ecological and economic benefit of bivalve aquaculture in combating eutrophication 195 Conclusions 200 Literature cited 201 8 Mussel farming as a tool for re-eutrophication of coastal waters: experiences from Sweden 217 Odd Lindahl Introduction 217 Mussel farming: open landscape feeding in the sea 217 Estimating the environmental value of mussel farming 219 Trading nutrient discharges 222 Agricultural environmental aid program and mussel farming 224 Added ecosystem services through mussel farming 226 The city of lysekil, the first buyer of a nutrient emission quota 226 Swedish mussel farming and its markets 227 Mussel meal instead of fish meal in organic feeds 229 Mussel meal in feeds for organic poultry 230 The use of the mussel remainder as fertilizer and biogas production 232 Risk assessment of mussels for seafood, feed, and fertilizer 233 Conclusions of the Swedish experience 234 Literature cited 235 9 Expanding shellfi sh aquaculture: a review of the ecological services provided by and impacts of native and cultured bivalves in shellfi sh-dominated ecosystems 239 Loren D. Coen, Brett R. Dumbauld, and Michael L. Judge Introduction 239 Aquaculture-based systems 249 Remaining questions 272 Literature cited 274 10 Bivalves as bioturbators and bioirrigators 297 Joanna Norkko and Sandra E. Shumway Bivalves are key species in soft-sediment habitats 297 What are bioturbation and bioirrigation? 298 How do healthy soft-sediment bivalve populations affect their surroundings? 303 Summary 311 Literature cited 312 11 Environmental impacts related to mechanical harvest of cultured shellfi sh 319 Kevin D.E. Stokesbury, Edward P. Baker, Bradley P. Harris, and Robert B. Rheault Introduction 319 Literature review 320 Experimental design 329 Conclusions 334 Acknowledgments 335 Literature cited 335 12 Genetics of shellfish on a human-dominated planet 339 Dennis Hedgecock Introduction 339 Domestication of shellfish 341 Conservation 347 Conclusions 352 Literature cited 352 13 Shellfi sh diseases and health management 359 Ralph A. Elston and Susan E. Ford Shellfish health management and infectious disease prevention 359 Interactions of bivalve shellfish and parasites with the natural environment 360 Interactions of hosts and disease agents within the aquaculture environment 367 Solutions: 1. Shellfish aquaculture development and health management 370 Solutions: 2. Implementing health management for shellfish aquaculture 377 Summary 385 Literature cited 386 14 Marine invaders and bivalve aquaculture: sources, impacts, and consequences 395 Dianna K. Padilla, Michael J. McCann, and Sandra E. Shumway Introduction 395 Introduced shellfish from aquaculture 397 Species moved with aquaculture 406 Introduced species that impact aquaculture 407 Recommendations for minimizing spread and impacts of introductions 412 Future needs 415 Acknowledgments 415 Literature cited 416 15 Balancing economic development and conservation of living marine resources and habitats: the role of resource managers 425 Tessa L. Getchis and Cori M. Rose Introduction 425 Regulatory framework for shellfi sh aquaculture in the United States 429 Environmental best management practices (BMPs) 440 Environmental marketing and other incentive programs 440 Conclusions 442 Literature cited 443 16 Education 447 Donald Webster Skills 447 Aquaculture-related disciplines 449 K-12 education 451 Undergraduate degree programs 452 Graduate degree programs 453 4-H and youth programs 454 Extension programs 455 Technology transfer 457 Conclusion 458 Literature cited 459 17 The implications of global climate change for molluscan aquaculture 461 Edward H. Allison, Marie-Caroline Badjeck, and Kathrin Meinhold Introduction 461 Climate change in the oceans and coastal zones 462 The effects of climate change on shellfish aquaculture systems 467 Adapting shellfish farming to climate change impacts 478 Shellfish aquaculture and climate change mitigation 482 Conclusion 484 Acknowledgments 485 Literature cited 485 Index 491

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780813814131
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 528
  • ID: 9780813814131
  • weight: 1414
  • ISBN10: 0813814138

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