Skin Tissue Models

Skin Tissue Models

By: Rogerio P. Pirraco (editor), Rui L. Reis (editor), Alexandra P. Marques (editor), Mariana Cerqueria (editor)Paperback

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Skin Tissue Models provides a translational link for biomedical researchers on the interdisciplinary approaches to skin regeneration. As the skin is the largest organ in the body, engineered substitutes have critical medical application to patients with disease and injury - from burn wounds and surgical scars, to vitiligo, psoriasis and even plastic surgery. This volume offers readers preliminary description of the normal structure and function of mammalian skin, exposure to clinical problems and disease, coverage of potential therapeutic molecules and testing, skin substitutes, models as study platforms of skin biology and emerging technologies. The editors have created a table of contents which frames the relevance of skin tissue models for researchers as platforms to study skin biology and therapeutic approaches for different skin diseases, for clinicians as tissue substitutes, and for cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as alternative test substrates that can replace animal models.

About Author

Biographical Sketch Alexandra P. Marques Alexandra P. Marques concluded her four years graduation in Biochemistry, in 2007 in the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto, Portugal. During 1998 and 1999 she attended a one year specialisation course as part of the Biomedical Engineering Master/Doctoral Programme at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Portugal. In 2004 Alexandra P. Marques obtained her PhD on Materials Science and Technology - Biomaterials in the University of Minho, Portugal under the supervision of Professor Rui Reis and in cooperation with the University of Liverpool, UK under the supervision of Professor John Hunt. In 2005 she was awarded a Post-doctoral fellowship from FCT (Portuguese Science Foundation), and between 2007 and 2009 worked as Assistant Researcher at the 3B's Research Group (3B's - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics) under the scope of the Network of Excellence EXPERTISSUES. In June 2009 she obtained an Assistant Researcher position under the framework of the National "Compromisso com a Ciencia" Programme. From July 2014 is Principal Investigator in the 3B's Research Group of the University of Minho, position that is, since March 2105, supported by an FCT Career Development Grant. Alexandra P. Marques is a founder member of 3B's Research Group, a Research Unit of the University of Minho, Portugal. She is also on the Board of Directors of the Portuguese Associate Laboratory formed by the Institute for Life and Health Sciences of the University of Minho and the 3B's Research Group. She is a board member of the doctoral Program in Advanced Therapies for Health. As from October 2009 Alexandra P. Marques is Assistant Editor of the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM), John Wiley & Sons - Blackwell, launched in 2007. She is also member of the Editorial Board of Current Tissue Engineering journal and has been acting as referee of 13 international peer review journals, including some of the most relevant in the field. Alexandra P. Marques is member of several International Scientific Organizations. She has been actively participating in the activities of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS) and the Portuguese Society for Stem Cells and Cellular Therapy (SPCE-TC, founder member and coordinator of the Section Cell Therapies and Tissue Engineering -2011/2012). She was part of the organizing committee of the 2008 TERMIS-EU meeting held in Porto, and was member of the scientific committee and of the International Advisory Board of different TERMIS-EU and TERMIS World meetings, as well as of the European Society for Biomaterials. In 2010 she was Chair of the 5th International Meeting of the SPCE-TC. She was also (Co)-Chair of different symposia at the 3rd TERMIS World Congress, XXXVIII Congress of the ESAO and IV Biennial Congress of the IFAO, and at the 2014 TERMIS-Asia Pacific Meeting. She was invited as lecturer of several National and International Conferences, Courses and Workshops (21 in total) and of different National Integrated Master and Doctoral Programmes. The experience that Alexandra P. Marques has been acquiring along the years in the preparation of research project proposals at European (FP6, FP7, ERC, ESF) and National (FCT, QREN) levels, and in the active participation of its activities, including the management and research activities of the only FP6 European Network of Excellence on Tissue Engineering EXPERTISSUES, has been also recognized as scientific evaluator. She has been evaluating PhD grants proposals for Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, and has been acting as External Evaluator of Project proposals for EC (H2020), Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnica (ANPCyT), Argentina, for Czech Science Foundation, and for Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. Moreover, she acts as a reviewer for 13 international peer review journals and is member of the Editorial Board of Current Tissue Engineering journal. As PI and Co-PI she successfully obtained funding from FCT and EC in a total amount of 1.8M while she has participated in the proposal preparation and research team of National granted Projects corresponding to a total budget of about 1.3M and EC projects corresponding to a total budget of over 12.5M . As a supervisor or as co-supervisor Alexandra P. Marques has been awarded 10 PhD and 5 Post-doctoral scholarships, an amount of more than 0.5M . Alexandra P. Marques has been integrating stem cells and biomaterials knowledge into tissue engineering as a way to define innovative strategies to improve the functionality of bone and skin tissue engineered constructs. The establishment of in vitro 3D culture platforms to understand cellular crosstalk as well to be able to modulate the engineered constructs outcome has been the focus of her work. Mimicking tissue's native extracellular matrix (ECM) by exploring cell-sheet engineering technology and innovative hydrogel-like matrices has been contributing to address her goal on tackling the limitations of skin tissue substitutes such as the lack of vascularization and the limited source of "regenerative" epidermal cells. She has been supervising 9 final year projects of under-graduated students, 6 Master projects (2 ongoing), 11 PhDs (4 ongoing, 2 in the final stage of writing thesis) and 9 Post-Doctoral fellows (5 ongoing). She has also supervised visiting PhD students resulting from different International Collaborations. Alexandra P. Marques is co-editor of the Handbook Natural-based Polymers for Biomedical Applications, Woodhead Pub., Cambridge, (2008) and author of 163 publications: 73 peer-reviewed, 13 book chapters, 77 ISI indexed conference abstracts and proceedings and more than 200 communications in major conferences of the field. In addition she has also filled in 4 patent applications (PCT 20141000073433; PT 20141000047119; PCT/IB2014/060563; PCT/IB2014/059740). She has been cited more than 1600 times, 1545 without self-citations (23 citations/article) (22 October 2015, ISI Web of Knowledge). Rui L. Reis is 48 years old and was born in Porto, Portugal (PT), where he still lives. Rui L. Reis PhD, DSc, Hon. Causa MD. is a Full Professor of Tissue Engineering, Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cells at the Department of Polymer Engineering, School of Engineering of University of Minho (UM). He is the Vice-Rector for Research of the University of Minho, Braga & Guimaraes, Portugal. He is also the Director of the 3B's Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics at the U. Minho in Portugal (, and the Director of the PT Government Associate Laboratory ICVS/3B's. Both 3B's and ICVS (Institute of Health and Life Sciences) are research units of Excellence, as evaluated by international panels of the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). He is also, since 2000, the main responsible for LABMAT, the general materials characterization Lab. of U. Minho. Furthermore he is the President/Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) of the company Stemmatters that he has founded as a spin-off of the 3B's Research Group. As a result of that, he was awarded the 2007 START award (created by the bank BPI and Microsoft), one of the major innovation awards in PT. Rui L. Reis is the CEO of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM) that has 22 partners from 13 different countries. He directs the correspondent European Economic Interest Group (EEIG), being the main office registered in Portugal. The headquarters of this Institute are located in AvePark, Taipas - Guimaraes, Minho, Portugal, in a 3600 m2 state of the art unique facility fully designed for research in the TERM field. This building is also the home of the 3B's Research Group since July 2008. The installation of the 3B's and the headquarters of the Institute at AvePark were awarded the main innovation award for Northern Portugal (Premio Novo Norte - Norte Inovador 2009) by the Northern Portugal regional coordination committee (CCDR-N) in May 2010. The same project was awarded the Grand Prize New North (Grande Premio Novo Norte 2009) for best good practice in Northern Portugal for 2009 in all areas of activities. Rui Reis was also, from 2003-2009, Head of R&D for the Holding Corticeira Amorim SGPS, the world leading cork industrial company that is part of one of the major Portuguese controlled business groups with operations in around 100 countries world-wide. Rui L. Reis education background includes: (i) a graduation in Metallurgical Engineering, U. Porto, Portugal, 1990, (ii) a Master degree by research on Materials Science and Engineering - Biomaterials - obtained in a joint program of the six major technical Universities in Portugal, awarded by U. Porto, Portugal, 1994 (iii) a PhD on Polymer Engineering - Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering, U. Minho, Portugal, degree that was prepared in co-operation with Brunel University, London, UK, 1999, (iv) a Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) degree on Biomedical Engineering - Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering, by U. Minho, Portugal, 2007. Rui L. Reis has been involved in biomaterials research since 1990. He has worked several periods abroad, in different Universities and companies and has been responsible for several co-operation programs with Universities in UK, The Netherlands, Spain, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, Turkey, Ireland, Singapore, USA, Canada, South Korea, Japan, China, Australia, New Zealand. He has been the co-coordinator of four major EU research project, funded under FP6 of the European Commission. One of the main projects was the STREP "HIPPOCRATES" that had a 3 MEuros budget. He also coordinated the only European Network of Excellence (NoE) on Tissue Engineering, "EXPERTISSUES". This highly funded NoE (budget of around 7.3 MEuros) was composed by 22 partners, several being industrial, from 13 countries, and is continuing to lead the way in all Tissue Engineering research in Europe. He has also coordinated the Marie Curie Early Stage Training Multi-site project "ALEA JACT EST" (total budget of 2.6 MEuros), as well as the 2 Marie Curie Series of Conferences "InVENTS ", that had a budget of around 0.5 MEuros to prepare 6 cutting-edge research conferences (all in Portugal) and 3 practical training courses at the highest level on the respective research fields. He has also coordinated the large INTERREG Project PROTEUS, with a budget of 1.4 MEuros aimed to develop new materials for different applications based on marine resources from Northern Portugal and Galicia. He was also involved in the large scale FP7 project DISCREGENERATION, and on the FP7 projects BioHybrid and MultiScaleHuman (ITN). He coordinated five new strategic international, including 3 FP7, funded projects. Those were: the project FIND & BIND and the project SPECIAL, each one with a budget of around 3.6 MEuros, the project POLARIS (an FP7 REGPOT with 3.1 MEuros of budget for U. Minho), as well as a 2 cross-broader large projects, IBEROMARE with a budget of around 2 MEuros and NOVOMAR with a budget of 0.9 MEuros, and an Euro-Atlantic project called MARMED, also with a budget of around 2 MEuros. He is also the main responsible for several other projects funded by Portuguese, European and American biomaterials and polymeric industries and for a range of bi-lateral concerted actions. At only 46 years, he has been awarded and ERC AdG (European Research Council Advanced Grant), the most prestigious grant available for European Researchers in all Europe (only around 1400 ERC AdG grantees in all fields of research so far), of 2.35 MEuros for his project ComplexiTE. Under HORIZON 2020 he is already the coordinator of the RISE Marie Sklodowska-Curie UNICAT project, the scientific coordinator of a TEAMING proposal on Regenerative and Precision Medicine (with UCL-London, FCT and the 6 major Portuguese Universities) and of the ERA Chairs FoReCast grant (2.5 MEuros for 3B's-UMinho), as well as the TWINNING project Gene2Skin (1 MEuros of budget). As a result of his academic activities Rui L. Reis has been awarded several prizes. Some of the most relevant ones were: (i) the ESAFORM 2001 Scientific Prize for his work on processing of starch-based biomaterials, (ii) the Jean LeRay Award 2002 by the European Society for Biomaterials for its outstanding contributions to the biomaterials field as a young scientist and (iii) the Stimulus to Excellence Award 2004 by the Portuguese Minister for Science and Technology for being one of the scientists with higher number of publications and citations in the Portuguese scientific arena (around 70 awardees - only 2 below 40 years old), (iv) the Pfizer Award for Clinical Research in 2007, (v) the already referred to START Innovation award in 2007, (vi) the yearly award of scientific merit of the University of Minho (awarded only for the second time this year) in 2010, (vii) an Honoris Causa degree in Medicine (making him an h.c MD) awarded in 2010 by the historical and highly respected University of Granada in Spain for his world-leading activities in the field of regenerative medicine, (viii) the George Winter Award by the European Society for Biomaterials (the main career and senior award in Biomaterials research in all Europe) that was presented in Dublin in September 2011, (ix) The Gold Medal of Scientific Merit from the City of Guimaraes, in June 2011, (x) International Fellow of Biomaterials Science and Engineering (FBSE), Chengdu, China, June 2012, (xi) the Medal of Merit of the Portuguese Health Minister, April, 2014; (xii) the Clemson Award for Contributions to the Literature by the Society for Biomaterials (SFB, USA), Denver, Apr., 2014; (xiii) the nomination as a Commander (Comendador, a kind of knighthood) of the Military Order of Santiago de Espada by the Portuguese President of the Republic, Guarda, Portugal, June, 2014; (xiv) the Gold Medal of the City of Guimaraes (birth place of Portugal), being nominated as one of the first two honorary citizens of the city, Guimaraes, Portugal, June, 2014; (xv) International Fellow of Tissue Engineering of Regenerative Medicine (FTERMIS), Boston, September, 2015. In addition, he was or is a member of several editorial boards of journals (some examples are Tissue Engineering: A, Tissue Engineering: B, Tissue Engineering: C, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B - Applied Biomaterials, Current Opinion on Solid State and Materials 3 Science, International Materials Reviews, Acta Biomaterialia, Nanomedicine), acts as referee of numerous (more than 95) scientific journals and has been presenting author, member of the scientific committees, organizing committees, referee, chairman, discussion leader in Gordon Research Conferences, and invited lecturer in many conferences world-wide (Japan, USA, Canada, Australia, South Korea, Israel, Turkey, Cuba, Colombia, Iran, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, New Zealand, and a large number of European Countries). He was the founder and for 4 years (2006-2009) the President of the Portuguese Society for Stem Cells and Cellular Therapies (SPCE-TC). He was elected again as President of SPCE-TC for 2011-2012. Rui L. Reis was in the Board of Directors of the European Tissue Engineering Society (ETES) and is presently on the governing board of the Global (world) TERMIS - Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (the main International Society in his field of Research with members from 90 different countries). He was, in early 2010, elected the TERMIS-EU chapter chair (for a 3 years term). Since 2013 he is the World President-Elect of TERMIS. From January 2016 he will be, for 3 years, the World President of TERMIS. He was also on the board of governors of the European Society for Artificial Organs (ESAO) and of the International Federation for Artificial Organs (IFAO) of which he organized the world meeting (IFAO-ESAO join meeting, October 2011, Porto, PortugalI. He was Chair of Tissue Engineering Special Interest Group (SIG), Chair of the SIG on Orthopaedic Biomaterials, as well as a member of Membership Committee, of the Society for Biomaterials (SFB, USA). He is the Editor-in-Chief of "Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine" (IF = 5.2), John Wiley & Sons- Blackwell. He was the Director and main responsible for organizing several main meetings and workshops. He has for instances organized, just with his team and no help from any professional organization, the large (730 people from 43 countries) TERMIS-EU 2008 meeting, in Porto. He is Editor of several international books and Guest Editor of several special issues of journals (J. Mater. Sci.: Mater in Medicine, Macromolecular Bioscience, Current Opinion on Solid State & Materials Science, Mater. Sci. & Eng.: Part C: Biomimetic and Supramolecular Systems, Journal of Supercritical Fluids). Presently, Rui L. Reis is the most productive (higher number of ISI Web of Knowledge listed publications) Portuguese scientist ever in all fields of research. He has produced so far 923 publications listed in ISI Web of Knowledge, including around 705 articles published in scientific journals with referee (the other are mainly abstract published in international journals or ISI listed proceedings) - being around 70 of those review papers or editorials, 30 national and international awarded patents (several other applications ongoing - one of the awarded patents was selected as one of 15 finalists for the European Inventor Award of 2013), 6 books, 6 special issues in scientific journals, around 206 book chapters in books with international circulation and on international encyclopedias, and more than 1650 communications in conferences, almost all of them in international meetings (in Portugal, several other countries in Europe, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, China, Israel, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Iran, Indonesia, Thailand, etc.), including around 200 plenary or invited talks. He presented around 150 invited lectures in other Universities or Research Institutes. His work has been cited around 17025 times (around 19.57 citations per article, 25280 citations in Google Scholar). Rogerio Pedro Lemos de Sousa Pirraco was born in 1982 in Porto, Portugal. At the present, he lives in Porto and is a Post-doc Researcher at the 3B's Research Group (Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics) of the University of Minho, Portugal. Rogerio Pirraco concluded his four years graduation in Applied Biology in 2005, at the University of Minho. The work for his final year graduation thesis was developed at the 3B's Research Group in the area of cell co-culture models for bone and cartilage Tissue Engineering. In 2006, he was admitted as a PhD student in the same group, where he further developed his work about co-cultures of cells for Tissue Engineering purposes, cell sheet engineering using thermally responsive surfaces and stem cell culture. During this time, he spent a total of one year in Professor Teruo Okano's Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science of the Tokyo's Women Medical University in Tokyo, Japan, where he acquired knowledge in cell sheet development and manipulation and its application in animal models. Currently his research interests are focused on the use of cell sheet engineering, stem cells and hypoxia for Tissue Engineering strategies. He has published several works in international refereed journals, in books and in international conference proceedings. Between 2010 and 2012, Rogerio served as Chair of the Student and Young Investigator Section of the European Chapter of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society. He has been an ad hoc reviewer for several international journals and international funding agencies. Since 2012 he is the representative of researchers at the Scientific Council of the School of Engineering of the University of Minho. Furthermore, he received several awards such as the prize for "Outstanding Student Contribution" at the meeting of the European chapter of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (2007, London, UK), the Best Oral Communication award, sponsored by Crioestaminal, at the 7th Meeting of the Portuguese Society of Stem Cells and Cellular Therapy (2012, Porto,Portugal) and Best Doctoral Thesis of 2012 of the School of Engineering of the University of Minho (2012, Guimaraes, Portugal). Mariana Cerqueira was born in 1983 in Porto, Portugal, where she currently lives. At the present she is a Post-doc Researcher at 3B's Research Group (Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics), in Caldas das Taipas, Portugal. This is a research unit of Excellence integrated in the University of Minho, and part of the Portuguese Government Associated Laboratory ICVS/3B's. Her previous education background include four years graduation in Biology (2006), in the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Porto, Portugal, where she first got in touch with research by having worked as a volunteer research trainee at INEB - Biomedical Engineering Institute, University of Porto. That was followed by graduation final work thesis at Stem Cell Laboratory, King's College London, UK, where she got acquainted with stem cell and molecular biology research and got the opportunity of getting in touch with the latest cutting edge research. Afterwards, in 2013 she concluded my PhD in Tissue Engineering, Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cells at 3B's Research Group, under the supervision of Professor Rui Reis and Dr. Alexandra Marques. Having been the first PhD student graduated in the field of Skin Regeneration at 3B's Research Group, University of Minho, her scientific interests have been related with the exploitation of tissue engineered-based strategies towards skin regeneration promotion rather than skin replacement. This developed work comprised a set of strategies based on 3D platforms, produced in a short timeframe period, where cell sheet engineering and spongy-like hydrogels are explored in variable combinations with key skin relevant lineages and stem cells, with the rationale of taking advantage of specific cellular machinery and extracellular matrix properties to modulate the wound healing dynamic response. While Post-doctoral fellow, after been awarded with a Post-doctoral grant by Portuguese Foundation of Science and Technology, and taking advantage of the knowledge acquainted during graduate studies and novel collaborations established, she has been focused on the development of different skin tissue engineering strategies by exploring mainly stem cell-based approaches and to fine tune their role in different types of wounds. Moreover, she has been actively involved in a wide range of activities developed at 3B's Research group, namely in the preparation of several grant proposals both in national and international calls, as well in the organization of several international conferences. Furthermore, she has attended the most important international meetings in the stem cell/Tissue Engineering field both with posters and oral communications, and also in educational dissemination activities, as well as co-supervision of undergraduate students. Finally, she has been published several works in refereed journals, awarded two front covers in international journals, and in international conference proceedings.


Section 1 - Therapeutic Molecules and Cosmetics Testing 1. Cosmetic industry requirements regarding skin models for cosmetic testing Christian Pellevoisin, Charbel Bouez, Jose Cotovio 2. Overall perspective on the clinical importance of skin models Yusef Yousuf, Saeid Amini-Nik, Marc G. Jeschke, Section 2 - Skin Diseases: clinical demands and diseased-skin in vitro models 3. In vitro models of Melanoma Dagmar Kulms, Friedegund Meier 4. Organotypic and humanized animal models of genodermatoses Esteban Chacon-Solan, Sara Guerrero-Aspizua, Lucia Martinez-Santamaria, Marcela Del Rio, Fernando Larcher 5. In vitro models of Psoriasis Bryan Roy, Melissa Simard, Isabelle Lorthois, Audrey Belanger, Maxim Maheux, Alexandra Duque-Fernandez, Genevieve Rioux, Philippe Simard, Marianne Deslauriers, Louis-Charles Masson, Alexandre Morin and Roxane Pouliot 6. In vitro models of Vitiligo Muriel Cario-Andre, Katia Boniface, Francois-Xavier Bernard, Alain Taieb, Maria Lucia Dell'Anna, Julien Seneschal 7. In vitro models of squamous cell carcinoma Elizabeth Pavez Lorie, Hans-Jurgen Stark, Manuel Berning, Petra Boukamp Section 3 - Skin Substitutes: Clinical demands and skin tissue equivalents 8. Strategies to promote the vascularization of skin substitutes after transplantation Jennifer Bourland, Julie Fradette 9. On the path to scarring-free skin regeneration approaches Mohammed Ashrafi, Adam Hague, Mohamed Baguneid, Teresa Alonso-Rasgado, Ardeshir Bayat 10. Pre-clinical Models for Wound Healing Studies Irena Pastar, Liang Liang, Andrew P Sawaya, Tongyu Cao Wikramanayake, George D Glinos, Stephan Drakulich, Vivien Chen, Olivera Stojadinovic, Stephen C Davis, and Marjana Tomic-Canic 11. The importance of targeting inflammation in skin regeneration Megan Schrementi, Lin Chen, Luisa Ann DiPietro Section 4 - In Vitro Models as study platforms of skin Biology 12. In Vitro Models to study hair follicles generation Ana Korosec, Beate Maria Lichtenberger 13. In Vitro Models to study cutaneous innervation mechanisms Nicolas Lebonvallet, Christelle Le Gall-Ianotto, Jeremy Cheret, Raphael Leschiera, Matthieu Talagas, Raphaele Le Garrec, Virginie Buhe, Killian L'herondelle, Olivier Gouin, Mehdi Sakka, Nicholas Boulais, Ulysse Pereira, Jean-Luc Carre, Laurent Misery 14. Skin in vitro models to study dermal white adipose tissue role in skin healing Manuela E. L. Lago, Mariana T. Cerqueira, Rogerio P. Pirraco, Rui L. Reis, Alexandra P. Marques 15. Immunocompetent in vitro skin models Victoria Hutter, Stewart B Kirton, David YS Chau Section 5 - Emerging technologies for the development of 3D skin models 16. Additive manufacturing in the development of 3D skin models Kelsey Retting, Deborah G. Nguyen 17. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Potential to generate skin tissue models Olga Kashpur, Avi Smith, Nailia Mukhamedshina, Jeremy Baskin, Yulia Shamis, Kyle Hewitt, Behzad Gerami-Naini, Jonathan A. Garlick 18. Requirements of skin tissue models for high throughput screening Stephanie H. Mathes, Christian N. Parker

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780128105450
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 472
  • ID: 9780128105450
  • weight: 740
  • ISBN10: 0128105453

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