Small Animal Radiographic Techniques and Positioning is a practical, clinically applicable manual designed to aid veterinary technicians and nurses in correcting common artifacts in both film and digital radiography and in positioning the small animal patient for clear and consistent radiographs. Detailed positioning techniques are provided for each commonly radiographed body segment, including positioning aids, alternative restraint methods, and examples of the corresponding correct or incorrect radiographs. Species covered include dogs, cats, birds, and common exotics. The book begins with an overview of radiographic technique, darkroom maintenance, digital and film-screen imaging, then offers a section on small animal positioning, including some exotic species positioning techniques, with the final section presenting information on contrast media and special contrast enhanced procedures. A companion website provides the images from the book in PowerPoint and study questions and answers at www.wiley.com/go/ayers.
Highly illustrated, Small Animal Radiographic Techniques and Positioning is a complete resource for any veterinary technician or student to quickly find imaging information and improve the clarity of small animal radiographs.
Mary H. (Susie) Ayers, BBA, RT(R) is the senior radiologic technologist at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, with over 23 years of experience working in veterinary medicine.
Foreword xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv Section 1. Theory and Equipment 3 1. Introduction to Digital Imaging 5 Definition and Principles of Digital Imaging 5 Digital Radiography 6 Digital Imaging Communications in Medicine 6 Picture Archiving and Communication System 6 Workstation Monitors 7 Computed Radiography 10 Direct and Indirect Conversion Radiography 11 Digital Image Processing 12 2. Principles of Film-Screen Radiography 17 X-ray Film Construction 17 Intensifying Screens 18 Common Principles of Film-Screen and Digital Radiography 20 3. The Radiographic System 21 Basic Component Overview 21 X-ray Tube 21 Fluoroscopy 24 Secondary or Scatter Radiation 25 Grids 27 Milliamperage and Kilovoltage 28 Technique Chart 28 Overexposure vs. Underexposure 32 Patient Log 33 4. Darkroom Maintenance and Film Processing 37 Darkroom Setup 37 Manual Film Processing 38 Automatic Film Processing 39 Automatic Film Processor Maintenance 41 Silver Recovery Cartridges 42 Safelights 42 Film Storage and Handling 43 Patient Identifi cation Labeling 44 Care and Maintenance of Film Cassettes 45 5. Film-Screen and Digital Imaging Artifacts 49 Exposure Artifacts 49 Darkroom Processing Artifacts 52 Film Storage Artifacts 54 Digital Imaging Artifacts 54 6. Positioning Aids and Alternative Restraint 57 Safe Use of Restraint Devices 57 Sedated Patient Restraint 59 7. Radiation Safety 61 Health Physics 61 Radiologic Units 61 ALARA Concept 65 Section 2. Radiographic Positioning 69 8. General Principles and Terminology 71 Positioning Terminology 72 Room Setup 74 Patient Preparation 74 Horizontal Beam Views 76 9. Small Animal Positioning Forelimb 79 Scapula 79 Shoulder 82 Bicipital Groove 85 Humerus 87 Elbow 90 Radius and Ulna 94 Carpus 95 Metacarpus, Digits 100 10. Small Animal Positioning Pelvis and Hind Limb 103 Pelvis 103 OFA Imaging 109 PennHIP Information 111 Femur 114 Stifle 117 Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) 123 Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) 127 Tibia and Fibula 129 Tarsus 133 Metatarsus and Digits 138 11. Small Animal Positioning Spine 143 Cervical Spine 144 Thoracic Spine and Thoraco-Lumbar Spine 149 Lumbar Spine 152 LS Spine 155 Sacrum 159 Caudal Spine 160 12. Small Animal Positioning Thorax, Soft Tissue Neck, and Abdomen 163 Thorax 163 Soft Tissue Neck 166 Abdomen 167 13. Small Animal Positioning Skull 171 Cranium 171 Nasal 174 Maxilla 179 Mandible 183 Temporomandibular Joints 187 Tympanic Bullae 191 14. Exotic Pet Imaging 197 Avian 197 Small Mammals 200 Reptile 202 Section 3. Contrast Media and Special Procedures 207 15. Radiopaque Contrast Media 209 Types of Radiopaque Contrast Media 209 Ionic and Nonionic Contrast Agents 209 Barium Sulfate 213 16. Special Imaging Procedures 215 Special Procedure Esophagram (Static) 215 Esophagram Fluoroscopic/Dynamic 216 Special Procedure Upper GI 217 Special Procedure Gastrogram 219 Special Procedure Lower GI Barium Enema 221 Special Procedure Excretory Urogram 222 Special Procedure Cystography 225 Special Procedure Urethrography 230 Special Procedure Vaginography 231 Special Procedure Myelography 233 Special Procedure Myelography Avian 236 Special Procedure Myelography Rabbit 237 Special Procedure Fistulography 238 Special Procedure Arthrography 239 References 241 Webliography 242 Index 243 Companion website This book is accompanied by a companion website: www.wiley.com/go/ayers