Small Unmanned Fixed-wing Aircraft Design: A Practical Approach (Aerospace Series)

Small Unmanned Fixed-wing Aircraft Design: A Practical Approach (Aerospace Series)

By: James P. Scanlan (author), Andrew J. Keane (author), Andras Sobester (author)Hardback

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Description

Small Unmanned Fixed-wing Aircraft Design is the essential guide to designing, building and testing fixed wing UAVs (or drones). It deals with aircraft from two to 150 kg in weight and is based on the first-hand experiences of the world renowned UAV team at the UK s University of Southampton. The book covers both the practical aspects of designing, manufacturing and flight testing and outlines and the essential calculations needed to underpin successful designs. It describes the entire process of UAV design from requirements definition to configuration layout and sizing, through preliminary design and analysis using simple panel codes and spreadsheets to full CFD and FEA models and on to detailed design with parametric CAD tools. Its focus is on modest cost approaches that draw heavily on the latest digital design and manufacturing methods, including a strong emphasis on utilizing off-the-shelf components, low cost analysis, automated geometry modelling and 3D printing. It deliberately avoids a deep theoretical coverage of aerodynamics or structural mechanics; rather it provides a design team with sufficient insights and guidance to get the essentials undertaken more pragmatically. The book contains many all-colour illustrations of the dozens of aircraft built by the authors and their students over the last ten years giving much detailed information on what works best. It is predominantly aimed at under-graduate and MSc level student design and build projects, but will be of interest to anyone engaged in the practical problems of getting quite complex unmanned aircraft flying. It should also appeal to the more sophisticated aero-modeller and those engaged on research based around fixed wing UAVs.

About Author

Andrew J. Keane is a Professor of Computational Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. He is the Director of the Rolls-Royce University Technology Center for Computational Engineering at the University and is a fellow of the RINA, IMechE and the Royal Academy of Engineering. Andras Sobester is a Senior Lecturer of Aeronautical Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. His main research focus is on developing techniques for the aerodynamic optimization of aircraft. James P. Scanlan is a Professor of Design in the Faculty of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. He spent more than 10 years working in the aerospace industry and now manages a number of research programmes sponsored by BAE systems, Airbus, Rolls-Royce and the EPSRC. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society.

Contents

List of Figures xvii List of Tables xxxiii Foreword xxxv Series Preface xxxvii Preface xxxix Acknowledgments xli PART I INTRODUCING FIXED-WING UAVS 1 Preliminaries 3 1.1 Externally Sourced Components 4 1.2 Manufacturing Methods 5 1.3 Project DECODE 6 1.4 The Stages of Design 6 1.4.1 Concept Design 8 1.4.2 Preliminary Design 10 1.4.3 Detail Design 11 1.4.4 Manufacturing Design 12 1.4.5 In-service Design and Decommissioning 13 1.5 Summary 13 2 Unmanned Air Vehicles 15 2.1 A Brief Taxonomy of UAVs 15 2.2 The Morphology of a UAV 19 2.2.1 Lifting Surfaces 21 2.2.2 Control Surfaces 22 2.2.3 Fuselage and Internal Structure 23 2.2.4 Propulsion Systems 24 2.2.5 Fuel Tanks 24 2.2.6 Control Systems 24 2.2.7 Payloads 27 2.2.8 Take-off and Landing Gear 27 2.3 Main Design Drivers 29 PART II THE AIRCRAFT IN MORE DETAIL 3 Wings 33 3.1 Simple Wing Theory and Aerodynamic Shape 33 3.2 Spars 37 3.3 Covers 37 3.4 Ribs 38 3.5 Fuselage Attachments 38 3.6 Ailerons/Roll Control 40 3.7 Flaps 41 3.8 Wing Tips 42 3.9 Wing-housed Retractable Undercarriage 42 3.10 Integral Fuel Tanks 44 4 Fuselages and Tails (Empennage) 45 4.1 Main Fuselage/Nacelle Structure 45 4.2 Wing Attachment 47 4.3 Engine and Motor Mountings 48 4.4 Avionics Trays 50 4.5 Payloads Camera Mountings 51 4.6 Integral Fuel Tanks 52 4.7 Assembly Mechanisms and Access Hatches 54 4.8 Undercarriage Attachment 55 4.9 Tails (Empennage) 57 5 Propulsion 59 5.1 Liquid-Fueled IC Engines 59 5.1.1 Glow-plug IC Engines 62 5.1.2 Spark Ignition Gasoline IC Engines 62 5.1.3 IC Engine Testing 65 5.2 Rare-earth Brushless Electric Motors 66 5.3 Propellers 68 5.4 Engine/Motor Control 70 5.5 Fuel Systems 70 5.6 Batteries and Generators 71 6 Airframe Avionics and Systems 73 6.1 Primary Control Transmitter and Receivers 73 6.2 Avionics Power Supplies 76 6.3 Servos 78 6.4 Wiring, Buses, and Boards 82 6.5 Autopilots 86 6.6 Payload Communications Systems 87 6.7 Ancillaries 88 6.8 Resilience and Redundancy 90 7 Undercarriages 93 7.1 Wheels 93 7.2 Suspension 95 7.3 Steering 95 7.4 Retractable Systems 97 PART III DESIGNING UAVS 8 The Process of Design 101 8.1 Goals and Constraints 101 8.2 Airworthiness 103 8.3 Likely Failure Modes 104 8.3.1 Aerodynamic and Stability Failure 105 8.3.2 Structural Failure 106 8.3.3 Engine/Motor Failure 107 8.3.4 Control System Failure 107 8.4 Systems Engineering 110 8.4.1 Work-breakdown Structure 110 8.4.2 Interface Definitions 112 8.4.3 Allocation of Responsibility 112 8.4.4 Requirements Flowdown 112 8.4.5 Compliance Testing 113 8.4.6 Cost and Weight Management 114 8.4.7 Design Checklist 117 9 Tool Selection 119 9.1 Geometry/CAD Codes 120 9.2 Concept Design 123 9.3 Operational Simulation and Mission Planning 125 9.4 Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis Codes 125 9.5 Design and Decision Viewing 125 9.6 Supporting Databases 126 10 Concept Design: Initial Constraint Analysis 127 10.1 The Design Brief 127 10.1.1 Drawing up a Good Design Brief 127 10.1.2 Environment and Mission 128 10.1.3 Constraints 129 10.2 Airframe Topology 130 10.2.1 Unmanned versus Manned Rethinking Topology 130 10.2.2 Searching the Space of Topologies 133 10.2.3 Systematic invention of UAV Concepts 136 10.2.4 Managing the Concept Design Process 144 10.3 Airframe and Powerplant Scaling via Constraint Analysis 144 10.3.1 The Role of Constraint Analysis 144 10.3.2 The Impact of Customer Requirements 145 10.3.3 Concept Constraint Analysis A Proposed Computational Implementation 145 10.3.4 The Constraint Space 146 10.4 A Parametric Constraint Analysis Report 146 10.4.1 About This Document 146 10.4.2 Design Brief 147 10.4.3 Unit Conversions 149 10.4.4 Basic Geometry and Initial Guesses 151 10.4.5 Preamble 151 10.4.6 Preliminary Calculations 152 10.4.7 Constraints 154 10.5 The Combined Constraint Diagram and Its Place in the Design Process 162 11 Spreadsheet-Based Concept Design and Examples 165 11.1 Concept Design Algorithm 166 11.2 Range 169 11.3 Structural Loading Calculations 169 11.4 Weight and CoG Estimation 170 11.5 Longitudinal Stability 170 11.6 Powering and Propeller Sizing 171 11.7 Resulting Design: Decode-1 174 11.8 A Bigger Single Engine Design: Decode-2 177 11.9 A Twin Tractor Design: SPOTTER 182 12 Preliminary Geometry Design 189 12.1 Preliminary Airframe Geometry and CAD 190 12.2 Designing Decode-1 with AirCONICS 192 13 Preliminary Aerodynamic and Stability Analysis 195 13.1 Panel Method Solvers XFoil and XFLR5 196 13.2 RANS Solvers Fluent 200 13.2.1 Meshing, Turbulence Model Choice, and y+ 204 13.3 Example Two-dimensional Airfoil Analysis 208 13.4 Example Three-dimensional Airfoil Analysis 210 13.5 3D Models of Simple Wings 212 13.6 Example Airframe Aerodynamics 214 13.6.1 Analyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: Aerodynamics 215 13.6.2 Analyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: Control Surfaces 221 13.6.3 Analyzing Decode-1 with XFLR5: Stability 223 13.6.4 Flight Simulators 227 13.6.5 Analyzing Decode-1 with Fluent 228 14 Preliminary Structural Analysis 237 14.1 Structural Modeling Using AirCONICS 240 14.2 Structural Analysis Using Simple Beam Theory 243 14.3 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) 245 14.3.1 FEA Model Preparation 246 14.3.2 FEA Complete Spar and Boom Model 250 14.3.3 FEA Analysis of 3D Printed and Fiber- or Mylar-clad Foam Parts 255 14.4 Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity 265 14.4.1 Estimating Wing Divergence, Control Reversal, and Flutter Onset Speeds 266 14.5 Summary of Preliminary Structural Analysis 272 15 Weight and Center of Gravity Control 273 15.1 Weight Control 273 15.2 Longitudinal Center of Gravity Control 279 16 Experimental Testing and Validation 281 16.1 Wind Tunnels Tests 282 16.1.1 Mounting the Model 282 16.1.2 Calibrating the Test 284 16.1.3 Blockage Effects 284 16.1.4 Typical Results 287 16.2 Airframe Load Tests 290 16.2.1 Structural Test Instruments 290 16.2.2 Structural Mounting and Loading 293 16.2.3 Static Structural Testing 294 16.2.4 Dynamic Structural Testing 296 16.3 Avionics Testing 300 17 Detail Design: Constructing Explicit Design Geometry 303 17.1 The Generation of Geometry 303 17.2 Fuselage 306 17.3 An Example UAV Assembly 309 17.3.1 Hand Sketches 311 17.3.2 Master Sketches 311 17.4 3D Printed Parts 313 17.4.1 Decode-1: The Development of a Parametric Geometry for the SLS Nylon Wing Spar/Boom Scaffold Clamp 313 17.4.2 Approach 314 17.4.3 Inputs 314 17.4.4 Breakdown of Part 315 17.4.5 Parametric Capability 316 17.4.6 More Detailed Model 317 17.4.7 Manufacture 318 17.5 Wings 318 17.5.1 Wing Section Profile 320 17.5.2 Three-dimensional Wing 323 PART IV MANUFACTURE AND FLIGHT 18 Manufacture 331 18.1 Externally Sourced Components 331 18.2 Three-Dimensional Printing 332 18.2.1 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 332 18.2.2 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) 335 18.2.3 Sealing Components 335 18.3 Hot-wire Foam Cutting 337 18.3.1 Fiber and Mylar Foam Cladding 339 18.4 Laser Cutting 339 18.5 Wiring Looms 342 18.6 Assembly Mechanisms 342 18.6.1 Bayonets and Locking Pins 345 18.6.2 Clamps 346 18.6.3 Conventional Bolts and Screws 346 18.7 Storage and Transport Cases 347 19 Regulatory Approval and Documentation 349 19.1 Aviation Authority Requirements 349 19.2 System Description 351 19.2.1 Airframe 352 19.2.2 Performance 355 19.2.3 Avionics and Ground Control System 356 19.2.4 Acceptance Flight Data 358 19.3 Operations Manual 358 19.3.1 Organization, Team Roles, and Communications 359 19.3.2 Brief Technical Description 359 19.3.3 Operating Limits, Conditions, and Control 359 19.3.4 Operational Area and Flight Plans 360 19.3.5 Operational and Emergency Procedures 360 19.3.6 Maintenance Schedule 360 19.4 Safety Case 361 19.4.1 Risk Assessment Process 362 19.4.2 Failure Modes and Effects 362 19.4.3 Operational Hazards 363 19.4.4 Accident List 364 19.4.5 Mitigation List 364 19.4.6 Accident Sequences and Mitigation 366 19.5 Flight Planning Manual 368 20 Test Flights and Maintenance 369 20.1 Test Flight Planning 369 20.1.1 Exploration of Flight Envelope 369 20.1.2 Ranking of Flight Tests by Risk 370 20.1.3 Instrumentation and Recording of Flight Test Data 370 20.1.4 Pre-flight Inspection and Checklists 371 20.1.5 Atmospheric Conditions 371 20.1.6 Incident and Crash Contingency Planning, Post Crash Safety, Recording, and Management of Crash Site 371 20.2 Test Flight Examples 375 20.2.1 UAS Performance Flight Test (MANUAL Mode) 375 20.2.2 UAS CoG Flight Test (MANUAL Mode) 377 20.2.3 Fuel Consumption Tests 377 20.2.4 Engine Failure, Idle, and Throttle Change Tests 377 20.2.5 Autonomous Flight Control 378 20.2.6 Auto-Takeoff Test 380 20.2.7 Auto-Landing Test 380 20.2.8 Operational and Safety Flight Scenarios 381 20.3 Maintenance 381 20.3.1 Overall Airframe Maintenance 382 20.3.2 Time and Flight Expired Items 382 20.3.3 Batteries 383 20.3.4 Flight Control Software 383 20.3.5 Maintenance Record Keeping 384 21 Lessons Learned 385 21.1 Things that Have Gone Wrong and Why 388 PART V APPENDICES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND INDEX A Generic Aircraft Design Flowchart 395 B Example AirCONICS Code for Decode-1 399 C Worked (Manned Aircraft) Detail Design Example 425 C.1 Stage 1: Concept Sketches 425 C.2 Stage 2: Part Definition 429 C.3 Stage 3: Flying Surfaces 434 C.4 Stage 4: Other Items 435 C.5 Stage 5: Detail Definition 435 Bibliography 439 Index 441

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781119406297
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 496
  • ID: 9781119406297
  • weight: 1092
  • ISBN10: 1119406293

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