Small Unmanned Fixed-wing Aircraft Design: A Practical Approach (Aerospace Series)

Small Unmanned Fixed-wing Aircraft Design: A Practical Approach (Aerospace Series)

By: James P. Scanlan (author), Andrew J. Keane (author), Andras Sobester (author)Hardback

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Description

Small Unmanned Fixed-wing Aircraft Design is the essential guide to designing, building and testing fixed wing UAVs (or drones). It deals with aircraft from two to 150 kg in weight and is based on the first-hand experiences of the world renowned UAV team at the UK s University of Southampton. The book covers both the practical aspects of designing, manufacturing and flight testing and outlines and the essential calculations needed to underpin successful designs. It describes the entire process of UAV design from requirements definition to configuration layout and sizing, through preliminary design and analysis using simple panel codes and spreadsheets to full CFD and FEA models and on to detailed design with parametric CAD tools. Its focus is on modest cost approaches that draw heavily on the latest digital design and manufacturing methods, including a strong emphasis on utilizing off-the-shelf components, low cost analysis, automated geometry modelling and 3D printing. It deliberately avoids a deep theoretical coverage of aerodynamics or structural mechanics; rather it provides a design team with sufficient insights and guidance to get the essentials undertaken more pragmatically. The book contains many all-colour illustrations of the dozens of aircraft built by the authors and their students over the last ten years giving much detailed information on what works best. It is predominantly aimed at under-graduate and MSc level student design and build projects, but will be of interest to anyone engaged in the practical problems of getting quite complex unmanned aircraft flying. It should also appeal to the more sophisticated aero-modeller and those engaged on research based around fixed wing UAVs.

About Author

Andrew J. Keane is a Professor of Computational Engineering in the dept. of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. He is the head of the Astronautics, Aeronautics and Computational Engineering academic unit at the university and is a fellow of the IMechE and the Royal Academy of Engineering. Andras Sobester is a Senior Lecturer of Aeronautical Engineering in the dept. of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. Hi main research focus is on developing techniques for the aerodynamic optimization of aircraft. James Scanlan is a Professor of Design in the dept. of Engineering and the Environment at the University of Southampton. He spent more than 10 years working in the Aerospace industry and now manages a number of research programmes sponsored by BAE systems, Airbus, Rolls-Royce and the EPSRC.

Contents

Preface 27 I Introducing Fixed-wing UAVs 1 1 Preliminaries 3 1.1 Externally Sourced Components 4 1.2 Manufacturing Methods 5 1.3 Project DECODE 6 1.4 The Stages of Design 6 1.5 Summary 13 2 Unmanned Air Vehicles 15 2.1 A Brief Taxonomy of UAVs 15 2.2 The morphology of a UAV 16 2.3 Main Design Drivers 29 II The Aircraft in More Detail 31 3 Wings 33 3.1 Simple Wing Theory and Aerodynamic Shape 33 3.2 Spars 36 3.3 Covers 37 3.4 Ribs 38 3.5 Fuselage Attachments 38 3.6 Ailerons / Roll Control 38 3.7 Flaps 40 3.8 Wing Tips 41 3.9 Wing Housed Retractable Undercarriage 42 3.10 Integral Fuel Tanks 43 4 Fuselages and Tails (Empennage) 45 4.1 Main Fuselage / Nacelle Structure 45 4.2 Wing Attachment 46 4.3 Engine and Motor Mountings 46 4.4 Avionics Trays 48 4.5 Payloads Camera Mountings 50 4.6 Integral Fuel Tanks 52 4.7 Assembly Mechanisms and Access Hatches 52 4.8 Undercarriage Attachment 55 4.9 Tails (Empennage) 55 5 Propulsion 59 5.1 Liquid Fueled IC Engines 59 5.2 Rare-earth Brushless Electric Motors 66 5.3 Propellers 67 5.4 Engine / Motor Control 68 5.5 Fuel Systems 68 5.6 Batteries and Generators 70 6 Airframe Avionics and Systems 73 6.1 Primary Control Transmitter and Receivers 73 6.2 Avionics Power Supplies 73 6.3 Servos 77 6.4 Wiring, Buses and Boards 81 6.5 Autopilots 86 6.6 Payload Communications Systems 86 6.7 Ancillaries 88 6.8 Resilience and Redundancy 90 7 Undercarriages 91 7.1 Wheels 92 7.2 Suspension 92 7.3 Steering 93 7.4 Retractable Systems 93 III Designing UAVs 97 8 The Process of Design 99 8.1 Goals and Constraints 99 8.2 Airworthiness 101 8.3 Likely Failure Modes 102 8.4 Systems Engineering 107 9 Tool Selection 115 9.1 Geometry / CAD Codes 116 9.2 Concept Design 119 9.3 Operational Simulation and Mission Planning 119 9.4 Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis Codes 122 9.5 Design and Decision Viewing 122 9.6 Supporting Data-bases 122 10 Concept Design: Initial Constraint Analysis 123 10.1 The design brief 123 10.2 Airframe Topology 126 10.3 Airframe and power plant scaling via constraint analysis 138 10.4 A parametric constraint analysis report 140 10.5 The combined constraint diagram and its place in the design process 156 11 Spreadsheet Based Concept Design and Examples 159 11.1 Design Algorithm 160 11.2 Range 162 11.3 Structural Loading Calculations 163 11.4 Weight and CoG Estimation 163 11.5 Longitudinal Stability 163 11.6 Powering and Propeller Sizing 165 11.7 Resulting Design: Decode-1 167 11.8 A Bigger Single Engine Design: Decode-2 173 11.9 A Twin Tractor Design: SPOTTER 177 12 Preliminary Geometry Design 181 12.1 Preliminary Airframe Geometry and CAD 182 12.2 Designing Decode-1 with AirCONICS 183 13 Preliminary Aerodynamic and Stability Analysis 187 13.1 Panel Method Solvers XFoil and XFLR5 188 13.2 RANS Solvers Fluent 190 13.3 Example Two-Dimensional Airfoil Analysis 198 13.4 Example Three-Dimensional Airfoil Analysis 201 13.5 3D Models of Simple Wings 202 13.6 Example Airframe Aerodynamics 207 14 Preliminary Structural Analysis 227 14.1 Structural Modeling using AirCONICS 229 14.2 Structural Analysis Using Simple Beam Theory 232 14.3 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) 235 14.4 Structural Dynamics and Aero-elasticity 250 14.5 Summary of Preliminary Structural Analysis 258 15 Weight and Center of Gravity Control 261 15.1 Weight Control 261 15.2 Longitudinal Center of Gravity (LCoG) Control 262 16 Experimental Testing and Validation 267 16.1 Wind Tunnels Tests 268 16.2 Airframe Load Tests 273 16.3 Avionics Testing 284 17 Detail Design: Constructing Explicit Design Geometry 289 17.1 The Generation of Geometry 289 17.2 Fuselage 291 17.3 An Example UAV assembly 296 17.4 3D Printed Parts 299 17.5 Wings 304 IV Manufacture and Flight 315 18 Manufacture 317 18.1 Externally Sourced Components 317 18.2 Three-Dimensional Printing 318 18.3 Hot-wire Foam Cutting 322 18.4 Laser Cutting 325 18.5 Wiring Looms 326 18.6 Assembly Mechanisms 329 18.7 Storage and Transport Cases 331 19 Regulatory Approval and Documentation 335 19.1 Aviation Authority Requirements 335 19.2 System Description 336 19.3 Operations Manual 344 19.4 Safety Case 346 19.5 Flight Planning Manual 349 20 Test Flights and Maintenance 355 20.1 Test Flight Planning 355 20.2 Test Flight Examples 361 20.3 Maintenance 367 21 Lessons Learned 371 21.1 Things That Have Gone Wrong and Why 374 V Appendices, Bibliography and Index 379 A Generic Aircraft Design Flowchart 381 B Example AirCONICS Code for Decode-1 385 C Worked (manned aircraft) Detail Design Example 407 C.1 Stage 1: concept sketches 407 C.2 Stage 2: Part Definition 411 C.3 Stage 3: Flying Surfaces. 413 C.4 Stage 4: Other Items 415 C.5 Stage 5: Detail Definition 418 Bibliography 421 Subject Index 423

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781119406297
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 496
  • ID: 9781119406297
  • weight: 1092
  • ISBN10: 1119406293

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