Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security

Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security

By: Lars T. Berger (author), Krzysztof Iniewski (author)Hardback

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Description

For many, smart grids are the biggest technological revolution since the Internet. They have the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, increase the reliability of electricity supply, and increase the efficiency of our energy infrastructure. Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security explains how diverse technologies play hand-in-hand in building and maintaining smart grids around the globe. The book delves into the communication aspects of smart grids, provides incredible insight into power electronics, sensing, monitoring, and control technologies, and points out the potential for new technologies and markets. Extensively cross-referenced, the book contains comprehensive coverage in four major parts: *Part I: Applications provides a detailed introduction to smart grid applications spanning the transmission, distribution, and consumer side of the electricity grid *Part II: Communications discusses wireless, wireline, and optical communication solutions from the physical layers up to sensing, automation, and control protocols running on the application layers *Part III: Security deals with cyber security sharpening the awareness of security threats, reviewing the ongoing standardization, and outlining the future of authentication and encryption key management *Part IV: Case Studies and Field Trials presents self-contained chapters of studies where the smart grid of tomorrow has already been put into practice With contributions from major industry stakeholders such as Siemens, Cisco, ABB, and Motorola, this is the ideal book for both engineering professionals and students.

About Author

Lars Torsten Berger, Phd, is founder of BreezeSolve, a Valencia-based company offering engineering and consultant services in telecommunications, signal processing, and smart grid. He is currently also directing the R&D Department of Kenus Informatica, Paterna, Spain. In his career, Dr. Berger has worked for Daimler-Benz Aerospace, Nortel Networks, Nokia Networks, as well as DS2, and has held faculty positions at Aalborg University, Denmark, and Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain. Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski, Phd, is managing R&D at Redlen Technologies Inc., a start-up company in Vancouver, Canada. Redlen's revolutionary production process for advanced semiconductor materials enables a new generation of more accurate, all-digital, radiation-based imaging solutions. Dr. Iniewski is also Executive Director of CMOS Emerging Technologies. In his career, Dr. Iniewski has held numerous faculty and management positions at the University of Toronto, University of Alberta, SFU, and PMC-Sierra Inc. He has published over 100 research papers in international journals and conferences, holds eighteen international patents, and has written and edited several books.

Contents

Preface xv Contributors xvii PART I APPLICATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID APPLICATIONS 3 Xiaoming Feng, James Stoupis, Salman Mohagheghi, and Mats Larsson 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Voltage and Var Control and Optimization 5 1.3 Fault Detection, Isolation, and Restoration (FDIR) 14 1.4 Demand Response (DR) 21 1.5 Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) 25 1.6 Wide-Area Monitoring, Control, and Protection (WAMCP) 28 2 ELECTRIC VEHICLES AS A DRIVER FOR SMART GRIDS 49 Nigel Fitzpatrick and Alec Tsang 2.1 Introduction 49 2.2 Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Hybrids 50 2.3 Hybrids 51 2.4 The General Electric Delta Car 52 2.5 Batteries, Ultracapacitors, and Semi and Full-Fuel Cells 53 2.6 Lithium Ion 56 2.7 Cell Voltage, Reliability of Stacks, and Impact of Inverters 57 2.8 Battery Mass Fraction, Energy, Power, Benefi ts and a Penalty 58 2.9 Vehicle Classes, Niches, and Constraints 59 2.10 Messages from Full-Cycle Modeling, Energy Security, and Air Quality 60 2.11 Market Penetration by Vehicle Niche 60 2.12 Vehicle Architecture, Key Components, Controls, and Cost 61 2.13 Grid to Vehicle (G2V) Charging: Levels 1 to 3 62 2.14 Grid Impacts 64 2.15 Vehicle to Grid (V2G): A First or Second Order Matter? 66 2.16 Second Life for Used Vehicle Batteries Grid-Side Instead? 68 2.17 The City and the Vehicle 69 2.18 Impact of Electric Drive on Greenhouse Gas Emissions 69 2.19 Conclusions 70 3 AUTONOMOUS DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT 75 Hamed Mohsenian-Rad and Alberto Leon-Garcia 3.1 Introduction 75 3.2 Direct and Indirect Demand-Side Management 77 3.3 Autonomous Demand-Side Management 79 3.4 Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling 82 3.5 Price Prediction 88 3.6 Managing User-Side Storage and Generation 91 3.7 Conclusion 92 4 POWER ELECTRONICS FOR MONITORING, SIGNALING, AND PROTECTION 97 Wilsun Xu 4.1 Introduction 97 4.2 Power Line Communication 98 4.3 Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection 102 4.4 Active Protection 109 4.5 Power Electronics Signaling Technology 113 4.6 Conclusions 115 PART II COMMUNICATIONS 5 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS 121 Wenbo Shi and Vincent W. S. Wong 5.1 Introduction 122 5.2 An Overview of Network Architecture 124 5.3 Premises Network 127 5.4 Neighborhood Area Network 131 5.5 Wide Area Network 135 5.6 Standardization Activities 138 5.7 Conclusions 141 6 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS IN SMART GRIDS 145 Juan Jose Garcia Fernandez, Lars Torsten Berger, Ana Garcia Armada, Maria Julia Fernandez-Getino Garcia, Victor P. Gil Jimenez, and Troels B. Sorensen 6.1 Introduction 145 6.2 Wireless Personal Area Networks 150 6.3 Wireless Local Area Networks 156 6.4 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks 162 6.5 Cellular Networks 165 6.6 Satellite Communications 170 6.7 Conclusions 181 7 WIRELINE COMMUNICATIONS IN SMART GRIDS 191 Lars Torsten Berger 7.1 Introduction 191 7.2 Phone Line Technology 195 7.3 Coaxial Cable Technologies 201 7.4 Power Line Technology 204 7.4.1 PLC Scenarios, Channel, and Noise Aspects, 205 7.5 Conclusions 220 8 OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS IN SMART GRIDS 231 Kris Iniewski 8.1 Introduction 231 8.2 Passive Optical Networks (PONs) 232 8.3 Wave Lengh Division Multiplexing (WDM) 235 8.4 SONET/SDH 238 8.5 Carrier Ethernet 239 8.6 Conclusions 241 9 NETWORK LAYER ASPECTS OF SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS 243 Kris Iniewski 9.1 Introduction 243 9.2 TCP/IP Networks 244 9.3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 248 9.4 Conclusions 248 10 SMART GRID SENSING, AUTOMATION, AND CONTROL PROTOCOLS 251 Wolfgang Mahnke 10.1 Introduction 251 10.2 Protocols and Standards 259 10.3 Conclusions 286 PART III SECURITY 11 INTRODUCTION TO SMART GRID CYBER SECURITY 295 Pedro Marin Fernandes 11.1 Introduction 295 11.2 Examples 299 11.3 Conclusion 316 12 SMART GRID SECURITY STANDARDIZATION 321 Steffen Fries and Hans-Joachim Hof 12.1 Standardization Activities 321 12.2 Smart Grid Security Requirements 321 12.3 Security Relevant Regulation and Standardization Activities 323 12.4 Trends in Energy Automation Security 332 12.5 Conclusion 333 13 SMART GRID AUTHENTICATION AND KEY MANAGEMENT 337 Anthony Metke 13.1 Introduction and Scope 337 13.2 Authentication and Authorization Issues in the Smart Grid 347 13.3 Architectural Considerations and Recommendations 350 13.4 Conclusion and Next Steps 358 PART IV CASE STUDIES AND FIELD TRIALS 14 HYBRID WIRELESS PLC SMART GRID IN RURAL GREECE 365 Angeliki M. Sarafi , Athanasios E. Drougas, Petros I. Papaioannou, and Panayotis G. Cottis 14.1 Introduction 365 14.2 Network Design and Implementation 366 14.3 Smart-Grid Applications Offered in Larissa 371 14.4 Key Lessons Learned 375 14.5 Conclusions 378 15 SMART CHARGING THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE FLEET 381 Peter Bach Andersen, Einar Bragi Hauksson, Anders Bro Pedersen, Dieter Gantenbein, Bernhard Jansen, Claus Amtrup Andersen, and Jacob Dall 15.1 Introduction 381 15.2 The Fleet Operator as a New Conceptual Role 382 15.3 EDISON and the Use of Standards 386 15.4 Smart Charging Communication Components 390 15.5 Charging Infrastructure Communication 394 15.6 Demonstration 400 15.7 Conclusion and Future Work 403 16 REAL-TIME ESTIMATION OF TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS 409 Wenyuan Li, Paul Choudhury, and Jun Sun 16.1 Introduction 409 16.2 Basic Concepts 410 16.3 Filtering Invalid Measurements 412 16.4 Estimating Parameters Rij, Xij, and Y 414 16.5 Simulation Results 417 16.6 Conclusions 421 17 WAMCP STUDY: VOLTAGE STABILITY MONITORING AND CONTROL 429 Mats Larsson 17.1 Wide-Area Voltage Stability Protection 429 17.1.2 Heuristic Tree Search, 431 17.1.3 Voltage Stability Protection Based on Local Measurements, 433 17.1.4 Test Network, 433 17.1.5 Scenarios and Simulation Results, 436 17.2 Conclusion 440 18 SECURE REMOTE ACCESS TO HOME ENERGY APPLIANCES 443 Steffen Fries and Hans-Joachim Hof 18.1 Introduction 443 18.2 Challenges in the Smart Grid 444 18.3 Access Control and Authorization for Remote Access to Home Energy Appliances 446 Reference Index 455

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118004395
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 488
  • ID: 9781118004395
  • weight: 790
  • ISBN10: 1118004396

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